telephone_switchboard_desc;The telephone switchboard is a system of electrical components used to connect telephone calls. The first telephone switchboard was invented by Hungarian Tivadar Puskas in 1877 while working for Thomas Edison. Primitive Telephone exchanges were in place for commercial applications by 1881 in the eastern US and western Europe. Telephone exchanges consisted of hundreds of 'plug boards' where a staff of operators manually 'plugged in' calls to route them. Almon Brown Strowger patented the first stepping switch in 1891, which led to automated telephone switching.;;;;;;;;;;;x;;



EVTDESC20105;With the $CRISISTAKER$ rebels struggling to break free from our nation and $CRISISATTACKER$ supporting them, we must hope that the arms of $CRISISDEFENDER$ will be able to support our cause. Should our Ambassador to $CRISISDEFENDER$ ask them to press our case strongly, or hint that we are open to a negotiated settlement?;;;;;;;;;;x;;;


liberate_liberia_desc;A "free, sovereign and independent state by the name and style of the Republic of Liberia" was declared by Governor Joseph Jenkins Roberts. Great Britain in particular, operating from neighboring Sierra Leone, regarded the Commonwealth and its parent organization the American Colonization Society (ACS), as "private persons" not entitled to exercise sovereignty. Therefore it was deemed urgent to proceed with formalizing independence. Although endorsed by the US Government, formal diplomatic recognitition by Congress of the new Republic did not come until the Civil War.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;


liberian_constitution_desc;What used to be nothing more than a colony a mere few years back has grown in size and strength enough to aspire to become a free, sovereign and independent state. A draft of the new constitution is ready to be presented for a referendum. It guarantees basic civil rights and establishes the separation of powers similar to the constitution of the United States, while detaching the newly proclaimed state from the United States government and institutions.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;


EVTDESC34609_NEWS_LONG;Musical news: 42 choral societies from the Rhineland, Baden, Hessen, and Franconia met in Frankfurt to celebrate a three-day festival of Mozart's music. Monetary donations were gathered for the preparation of the event, and hospitable accommodations were arranged in preparation for the influx of choristers. Thousands gathered at the banks of the river Main to welcome them. Even the rooflights were filled with cheerful spectators waving handkerchiefs and rejoicing. However, the event is said to have quickly turned into a demonstration for the political unification of Germany.;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

battle_we_win_large;$VALUE_INT_0_1$ of our men bravely gave $VALUE_INT_0_3$ $TAG_0_3_ADJ$ troops a sound seeing to, and while $VALUE_INT_0_2$ of our fearless troops lost their lives, over $VALUE_INT_0_4$ $TAG_0_3_ADJ$ scoundrels were killed and the field was left in our hands. After a defeat like this, $TAG_0_3$ surely must soon seek peace terms!;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;

我らが$ VALUE_INT_0_1 $はその勇猛さを持って$ VALUE_INT_0_3 $ $ TAG_0_3_ADJ $の軍隊に損害を与えました。 無様に敗北した$ TAG_0_3 $は、すぐに平和条件を探さなければならないでしょう!

battle_we_lose_large;On $DATE_LONG_0$ our incompetent high command shockingly sent $VALUE_INT_0_4$ of our brave soldiers to their deaths in $STRING_0_3$ against the forces of $TAG_0_2$. Our $VALUE_INT_0_3$ fine troops faced $VALUE_INT1$ $TAG_0_2_ADJ$ soldiers, and despite poor leadership and the enemy's underhanded tactics managed to inflict $VALUE_INT_0_2$ casualties upon them. This paper expresses grave concerns over the direction the high command is taking this war, and strongly urges the Government to take steps to correct it before it is too late!;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;

$ DATE_LONG_0 $に無能な最高司令部は$ VALUE_INT_0_4 $の勇敢な兵士たちを$ STRING_0_3 $の部隊に対して$ STRING_0_3 $で全滅させました。 $ VALUE_INT_0_3 $の優れた部隊は$ VALUE_INT1 $ $ TAG_0_2_ADJ $の軍隊に遭遇しました。そして、劣悪なリーダーシップと敵の手に負えない戦術にもかかわらず、なんとか敵軍に$ VALUE_INT_0_2 $の犠牲を負わせています。 新聞社は、最高司令部がこの戦争を取っている方向に対する重大な懸念を表明し、政府に手遅れになる前に修正するための措置を講じるよう強く要請します!

battle_we_lose_large_censored_press;Reports from the field tell us that on "DATE_LONG_0", our courageous troops have made a tactical retreat from the battle against $TAG_0_3$ in "STRING_0_3". This has been proven necessary to maximise our element of unpredictability and surprise. "VALUE_INT_0_4" enemy soldiers have been killed by our valiant boys. Although "VALUE_INT_0_2" of our soldiers are yet to report back for duty, it's worth noting that many of our troops remain hidden to surprise the enemy in an ambush, showing true courage and resilience!;;;;;;;;;;;;;x

battle_we_lose_censored_large;They were outnumbered forty to one in some sections of the front, and still held the line' a high military commander praised the bravery of our soldiers, who managed to delay enemy advance in "STRING_0_3" for as long as it was strategically feasible, and inflicted "VALUE_INT_0_2" of casualties against our foes. 'We are not ready to publish the number of casualties on our side' a government official replied, when asked about our own losses. 'Our people must rally behind the government when it comes to national defence' he challenged the sceptics.;;;;;;;;;;;;;x

war_we_lose_censored_large_desc;On DATE_LONG_1 our government decided to yield in the war against TAG_2_0. The war, known as STRING_0_0, raged from DATE_SHORT_0 over STRING_9_0, and the result was STRINGS_LIST_4. 'We gave no quarter, and we can be proud of our boys, we showed we are not a pushover' government officials commented, 'But in the end, it wasn't worth spilling more of our youth's blood'. All citizens are to rejoice that our brave sons are returning home, although no official celebrations are scheduled at this time.;;;;;;;;;;;;;x


EVTDESC33005_NEWS_LONG;Yesterday the Baghdad Railroad, a project prominently financed by Germans, was announced with plans to connect Constantinople and Baghdad. Though beneficial both to Germans, who are said to have economical interests in the oil fields of the Iraq region, and to the citizens of Constantinople, connecting them to far away cities such as Ankara and Konya (Iconium), the project is seen as controversial, conflicting with the interests of other Great Powers. Nonetheless, it is being heralded as one of the high points in the good relations between Constantinople and Berlin.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

昨日、ドイツ人が多くの資金を提供したバグダッド鉄道敷設プロジェクトが、コンスタンチノープルとバグダッドを結ぶ計画とともに発表されました。 イラク地域の油田に経済的利益があると考えているドイツ人と、アンカラやコンヤ(Iconium)などの遠く離れた都市に接続しているコンスタンチノープル市民の両方にとって有益である一方、他の大国の利益と矛盾しているために各国での緊張が高まっていました。 それでも、コンスタンティノープルとベルリンの良好関係を象徴するものの1つとして宣伝されています。

EVTDESC36898_NEWS_LONG;Princess Alexandrina Victoria has ascended the throne of The United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland.Today a jubilant London crowd has escorted her to her residence in the newly built Buckingham Palace. People of all classes and creeds are delighted to see the new Monarch take her place as sovereign of the UK, and the Queen herself is reportedly looking forward to the tasks and challenges which accompany this onerous office. Her father, King George III, will be greatly missed and fondly remembered by the British people.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

アレクサンドリーナビクトリア王女は、イギリスとアイルランドのイギリスの王位に就きました。今日、歓喜のロンドンの群衆は、新しく建てられたバッキンガム宮殿の女王の住居へ王女を見送っています。 すべての階級と信条の人々は、新しい君主が英国の主権者として戴冠を喜んでいます、そして、女王自身はこの厄介な王座に伴う仕事と挑戦を楽しみにしていると伝えられています。彼女の父であった先代国王、ジョージ3世のことを国民が懐かしく語るようになるのは、そう遠い未来ではないでしょう。

EVTDESC36901_NEWS_LONG;In 1838, Charles Dickens' novel 'Oliver Twist' was published in London. In it, he drew readers' attention to the poverty and lack of workers' rights in his time. Following the story of an orphaned boy through a baby farm and a workhouse until he finally joins a gang of street pickpockets in London, the novel shed light on what is called the great London waif crisis, drawing attention to the large number of orphans in the streets of London at that time. Possibly the greatest novelist of the Victoria era, Dickens himself suffered impoverishment early in his life.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

1838年、チャールズディケンズの小説「オリバーツイスト」がロンドンで出版されました。 その中で、彼は当時の貧困と労働者の権利の欠如に読者の注意を引くことになります。物語の中では、ロンドンのストリートスリのギャングに最終的に参加するまで、赤ちゃん農場と作業所を通る孤児の少年の物語をたどります。小説はロンドンの大規模な放棄危機と呼ばれるものに光を当て、当時のロンドンの通りにいた多くの孤児にも注目を集めました。 おそらく、ビクトリア時代の最も偉大な小説家であったディケンズ自身も、人生の早い段階では貧困に苦しんでいたとされています。

EVTDESC36922_NEWS_LONG;At the Oval in London, England and Australia have played the most memorable international match in history. In a three-day long match that seesawed back and forth, the english side fell a mere seven runs short of defeating australia in their last innings. It was a match so thrilling that one spectator died of a heart attack. The Sporting Times published this obituary: 'in remembrance of English cricket which died at the oval yesterday, lamented by a large circle of sorrowing fans and acquaintances. R.I.P. The body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia'.;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

ロンドンでは、イングランドとオーストラリアが歴史上最も記憶に残るクリケットの国際試合を行いました。手に汗握る展開の続いた3日間の長い試合で、イギリス側は最後のイニングでオーストラリアを破るのにわずか7ラン足りず、敗北を喫しています。この歴史的な敗北に対し、「Sporting Times」と言う新聞は死亡記事を発表しました。「この程イングランド・クリケットが亡くなりました。ご冥福をお祈りいたします。亡き骸は荼毘に付され、その灰はオーストラリアに持ち帰られました。」

追記1、R.I.P.はスラングで、元はラテン語のrequiescat in pace。日本語では「ご冥福をお祈りします」という言葉に近い。「安らかに眠れ」あたりでもOK。

EVTDESC36925_NEWS_LONG;The murder of at least six prostitutes by Jack the Ripper, the notorious serial killer, has horrified and shocked the Victorian establishment. The dismay evoked by these murders, has, however, indirectly awoken the British public to the extreme poverty and depravity reigning in the streets of the east end of London, especially in Whitechapel, where the murders were committed. Rumour mongers attribute the killer's continuing ability to evade capture to connections with people of high standing. The details of the outrages are too grizzly to publish in this newspaper.;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

悪名高い連続殺人犯であるジャック・ザ・リッパーによる少なくとも6人の売春婦の殺人は、ビクトリア朝の設立を恐怖に陥れ、衝撃を与えました。 しかし、これらの殺人によって引き起こされた落胆は、ロンドンの東端の街、特に殺人が行われたホワイトチャペルを支配しているイギリス国民の堕落と貧困に気づかせました。うわさ屋は、殺人者の絶え間ない捕獲能力を、高い地位の人々とのつながりに起因すると考えています。 怒りの詳細は、この新聞に書くには曖昧です。


EVTDESC36929_NEWS_LONG;$COUNTRY$: Nineteen months after completion, the bridge across the Firth of Tay near Dundee, collapsed under stress caused by high winds. A six-carriage train was also lost leading to deaths of all aboard. The bridge's designer, Sir Thomas Bouch, was held responsible for multiple flaws in design and quality control and removed from his position as designer of the Firth of Forth bridge. With his reputation as an engineer ruined, and multiple other projects of his being cancelled or ordered a new design under another architect, Bouch died with a year.;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

完成から19か月後、ダンディー近くのテイの湾を渡る橋は強風による負荷で崩壊しました。 6両編成の列車も失われ、乗船中の全員が死亡しました。 橋の設計者であるトーマス・バウチ氏は、設計と品質管理の複数の欠陥の責任を負い、フォース・オブ・フォース橋の設計者としての地位を解かれました。 設計者としての彼の評判が台無しになり、バウチ氏は1年後に亡くなりました。くずれた橋は別の設計者によって再建されています。

EVTDESC36940_NEWS_LONG;$COUNTRY$: A treaty formalizing the nation of New Zealand was signed, wherein the Maori Chiefs recognized the sovereignty of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and in turn she guaranteed the chiefs their lands, estates, forests and fisheries. Maori and English versions of the signed document differ, leaving doubt about what was actually agreed upon. While the British claim Maori agreed to governor's rule over them, the Maori version of the treaty states they should retain a large degree of autonomy and self-governance allowing them to manage their own affairs.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

ニュージーランドの国家を正式に定める条約に署名しました。マオリ族の首長はビクトリア女王の下での主権を認め、そして首長に土地、地所、森林、漁業を保証しました。 署名された文書のマオリ語版と英語版は異なり、実際に合意された内容について疑問を残しています。 イギリスはマオリ族が知事の支配に同意したと主張していますが、マオリ語版の条約では、彼らが自分の問題を管理できるように、高度な自治と自治を維持すべきだと述べています。

EVTDESC36941_NEWS_LONG;$COUNTRY$: Disenchanted with British attitudes, Maori Chief Hone Heke had the flagstaff in Kororareka repeatedly chopped down in protest leading to what is known as the First Maori War. Resilient and emboldened by early successes, but strained economically, with dwindling food supplies and victims to many epidemic deaths, Maori chiefs eventually asked for ceasefire. The British maintained their sovereingty over New Zealand, but rebellious Maori chiefs raised their position higher than it ever was, gaining substantial amounts of respect among all tribes.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;

マオリ族の首長であるホーン・ヘケは、英国の態度に幻滅して、コロラレカにある旗竿を抗議で繰り返し切り倒し、第一次マオリ戦争と呼ばれるものに導きました。 初期は成功し、マオリ族の勇敢さを示したものの、食料の供給が減少し、多くの伝染病死の犠牲者がいることで経済的に緊張したため、最終的にマオリ族の首長は停戦を求めました。 イギリス人はニュージーランドに対する主権を維持しましたが、反抗的なマオリ族の首長はこれまでよりも高い地位につき、すべての部族の間で相当な尊敬を得ました。

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Last-modified: 2020-02-23 (日) 19:58:45