destroyers;Destroyers;Destroyers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
destroyers_desc;Destroyers are built mainly to combat the increasing threat from torpedo boats. They are equipped with several small-calibre gun turrets that can lay a barrage of shells in front of the small craft.;Destroyers are built mainly to combat the increasing threat from torpedo boats. They are equipped with several small-calibre gun turrets that can lay a barrage of shells in front of the small craft.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
submarines;Submarines;Submarines;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
submarines_desc;Submarines are small boats equipped with torpedoes and a gun. They are submergible, but to attack they still have to go to the surface.;Submarines are small boats equipped with torpedoes and a gun. They are submergible, but to attack they still have to go to the surface.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
pre_dreadnought;Pre-Dreadnought;Pre-Dreadnought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
pre_dreadnought_desc;Pre-Dreadnoughts are large ships equipped with sufficent armour to take several hits as well as a high-calibre guns.;Pre-Dreadnoughts are large ships equipped with sufficent armour to take several hits as well as a high-calibre guns.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
steam_turbine_ships;Steam Turbine Ships;Steam Turbine Ships;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
steam_turbine_ships_desc;Steam Turbine Ships;Steam Turbine Ships;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
dreadnoughts;Dreadnoughts;Dreadnoughts;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
dreadnoughts_desc;Dreadnoughts are the top-notch combat ship at the turn of the century. Equipped with several high-calibre guns, they can take quite some damage and still deal a crippling blow to the enemy fleet.;Dreadnoughts are the top-notch combat ship at the turn of the century. Equipped with several high-calibre guns, they can take quite some damage and still deal a crippling blow to the enemy fleet.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
light_cruisers;Light Cruisers;Light Cruisers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
light_cruisers_desc;Light Cruisers are basically Cruisers with additional armaments. They are still not as heavily armoured as battleships and as a result still retain some of the extra speed.;Light Cruisers are basically Cruisers with additional armaments. They are still not as heavily armoured as battleships and as a result still retain some of the extra speed.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
battlecruisers;Battlecruisers;Battlecruisers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
battlecruisers_desc;Even as the first Dreadnoughts were being constructed, significant interest was shown in a warship that could combine the main armament of a Dreadnought with the speed of Cruisers. Thus was born the battlecruiser, a powerful warship able to scout ahead of the main fleet and strong enough to sink any warship other than a battleship, though its weak armour would be a significant drawback.;Even as the first Dreadnoughts were being constructed, significant interest was shown in a warship that could combine the main armament of a Dreadnought with the speed of Cruisers. Thus was born the battlecruiser, a powerful warship able to scout ahead of the main fleet and strong enough to sink any warship other than a battleship, though its weak armour would be a significant drawback.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
ocean_going_submarines;Ocean-Going Submarines;Ocean-Going Submarines;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
ocean_going_submarines_desc;Submarine design continued to improve in the early 20th-century, to the point where submarines became able to spend significant amounts of time at sea, allowing them to intercept enemy warships and shipping at a significant distance from home bases.;Submarine design continued to improve in the early 20th-century, to the point where submarines became able to spend significant amounts of time at sea, allowing them to intercept enemy warships and shipping at a significant distance from home bases.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
oil_driven_ships;Oil-Driven Ships;Oil-Driven Ships;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
oil_driven_ships_desc;Oil-Driven Ships;Oil-Driven Ships;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_destroyers;Advanced Destroyers;Advanced Destroyers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_destroyers_desc;The evolution of the submarine into a potent threat to warships and merchant ships alike resulted in the evolution of destroyers to assume the primary role for defending against them, as opposed to their former role of defending the main battle fleet from torpedo boats. Thus the first years after the First World War saw improvements in destroyer design that aimed to enhance their ability to find and sink submarines, such as the implementation and refinement of SONAR.;The evolution of the submarine into a potent threat to warships and merchant ships alike resulted in the evolution of destroyers to assume the primary role for defending against them, as opposed to their former role of defending the main battle fleet from torpedo boats. Thus the first years after the First World War saw improvements in destroyer design that aimed to enhance their ability to find and sink submarines, such as the implementation and refinement of SONAR.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
modern_destroyers;Modern Destroyers;Modern Destroyers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_destroyers_desc;The late interwar period saw destroyers increase in size as well as the number of roles they could fulfil, including countering the increasing threat from aircraft, with the introduction of specific anti-aircraft armament.;The late interwar period saw destroyers increase in size as well as the number of roles they could fulfil, including countering the increasing threat from aircraft, with the introduction of specific anti-aircraft armament.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
advanced_cruisers;Advanced Cruisers;Advanced Cruisers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_cruisers_desc;By the early 1920s cruiser design focussed on two main types: light cruisers, generally with 6-inch main armament, and heavy cruisers, generally with 8-inch main armament. Their primary roles were fleet support in combination with destroyers, defence of sea lanes, and raiding.;By the early 1920s cruiser design focussed on two main types: light cruisers, generally with 6-inch main armament, and heavy cruisers, generally with 8-inch main armament. Their primary roles were fleet support in combination with destroyers, defence of sea lanes, and raiding.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
modern_cruisers;Modern Cruisers;Modern Cruisers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_cruisers_desc;Further refinements of cruiser design in the interwar period including increases in armour and in the number of guns, both main and anti-aircraft armament.;Further refinements of cruiser design in the interwar period including increases in armour and in the number of guns, both main and anti-aircraft armament.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_battlecruisers;Advanced Battlecruisers;Advanced Battlecruisers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_battlecruisers_desc;In the immediate aftermath of the First World War, many battlecruisers under construction were scrapped or converted to aircraft cruisers. Those battlecruisers that remained were refitted with improved main armament and enhanced armour protection.;In the immediate aftermath of the First World War, many battlecruisers under construction were scrapped or converted to aircraft cruisers. Those battlecruisers that remained were refitted with improved main armament and enhanced armour protection.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_battleships;Advanced Battleships;Advanced Battleships;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_battleships_desc;The experiences of the First World War lead to a series of design improvements for battleships, including a more effective use of armour protection to defend against plunging fire, improved protection against torpedoes, the widespread use of oil-driven propulsion, and further refinements in armament and fire control. Though few battleships were constructed in the first years after the First World War, due to economic constraints and treaty limitations, existing battleships were refitted to incorporate these advances in design.;The experiences of the First World War lead to a series of design improvements for battleships, including a more effective use of armour protection to defend against plunging fire, improved protection against torpedoes, the widespread use of oil-driven propulsion, and further refinements in armament and fire control. Though few battleships were constructed in the first years after the First World War, due to economic constraints and treaty limitations, existing battleships were refitted to incorporate these advances in design.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
modern_battleships;Modern Battleships;Modern Battleships;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_battleships_desc;A new generation of battleships was designed in the 1930s, which included improved armament, particularly with respect to anti-aircraft armament, enhanced armour protection, and an increased speed of on average 28 knots.;A new generation of battleships was designed in the 1930s, which included improved armament, particularly with respect to anti-aircraft armament, enhanced armour protection, and an increased speed of on average 28 knots.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
experimental_carriers;Experimental Carriers;Experimental Carriers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
experimental_carriers_desc;The first experiments at flying aircraft off of warships often consisted of a small flight deck attached to an existing warship. Once these experiments had demonstrated the viability of aircraft taking off of and landing on ships at sea, navies began to convert small hulls to launch aircraft. These experimental carriers refined the basic techniques of carrier operations and demonstrated the potential of carrier warfare, but they were too small to have a decisive impact on naval combat on their own.;The first experiments at flying aircraft off of warships often consisted of a small flight deck attached to an existing warship. Once these experiments had demonstrated the viability of aircraft taking off of and landing on ships at sea, navies began to convert small hulls to launch aircraft. These experimental carriers refined the basic techniques of carrier operations and demonstrated the potential of carrier warfare, but they were too small to have a decisive impact on naval combat on their own.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
converted_hulk_carriers;Converted-Hulk Carriers;Converted-Hulk Carriers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
converted_hulk_carriers_desc;The next stage in carrier construction was to use the hulls of larger warships, such as battleships and battlecruisers, to build larger carriers. These carriers had a much larger aircraft capacity and were the first to be truly capable of independent operations, but they were still limited by their origins as converted-hull carriers.;The next stage in carrier construction was to use the hulls of larger warships, such as battleships and battlecruisers, to build larger carriers. These carriers had a much larger aircraft capacity and were the first to be truly capable of independent operations, but they were still limited by their origins as converted-hull carriers.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
purpose_built_carriers;Purpose-Built Carriers;Purpose-Built Carriers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
purpose_built_carriers_desc;Taking the lessons of earlier carrier designs, navies began to design and built carriers from scratch, which allowed for a range of improvements, from capacity to flight deck armour, anti-aircraft defenses, and advanced damage control. It would be these purpose-built carriers that would finally be capable of demonstrating beyond any doubt the power and decisiveness of carrier warfare.;Taking the lessons of earlier carrier designs, navies began to design and built carriers from scratch, which allowed for a range of improvements, from capacity to flight deck armour, anti-aircraft defenses, and advanced damage control. It would be these purpose-built carriers that would finally be capable of demonstrating beyond any doubt the power and decisiveness of carrier warfare.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
advanced_submarines;Advanced Submarines;Advanced Submarines;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_submarines_desc;The lessons learned from submarine warfare during the First World War were applied to submarine construction in the 1920s and 1930s, further enhancing the submarine as a weapon of naval warfare.;The lessons learned from submarine warfare during the First World War were applied to submarine construction in the 1920s and 1930s, further enhancing the submarine as a weapon of naval warfare.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_battlecruisers;Modern Battlecruisers;Modern Battlecruisers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_battlecruisers_desc;Battlecruiser design underwent a brief renaissance in the 1930s as several naval powers built new battlecruisers designed either to raid enemy shipping or to hunt down and sink enemy commerce raiders. Better armour protection was achieved without a significant reduction in speed, and presaged the future development of the fast battleship.;Battlecruiser design underwent a brief renaissance in the 1930s as several naval powers built new battlecruisers designed either to raid enemy shipping or to hunt down and sink enemy commerce raiders. Better armour protection was achieved without a significant reduction in speed, and presaged the future development of the fast battleship.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_engineering;Naval Engineering;Naval Engineering;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_engineering_desc;This is the naval branch that design equipment on your ships. Over time your naval commanders will get numerous of wonderful toys as, Mines, Armor Piercing Projectiles, and On-Board Recon Aircraft.;This is the naval branch that design equipment on your ships. Over time your naval commanders will get numerous of wonderful toys as, Mines, Armor Piercing Projectiles, and On-Board Recon Aircraft.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
naval_design_bureaus;Naval Design Bureaus;Naval Design Bureaus;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_design_bureaus_desc;Naval Design Bureaus;Naval Design Bureaus;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
fire_control_systems;Fire Control Systems;Fire Control Systems;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
fire_control_systems_desc;Fire Control Systems;Fire Control Systems;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
optical_rangefinders;Optical Rangefinders;Optical Rangefinders;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
optical_rangefinders_desc;This was instruments that made it possible to exactly measure the range from the gun to the enemy vessel and it vastly improved hit chances.;This was instruments that made it possible to exactly measure the range from the gun to the enemy vessel and it vastly improved hit chances.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
gyrostabilized_fire_control;Gyrostabilized Fire Control;Gyrostabilized Fire Control;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
gyrostabilized_fire_control_desc;This inventions made fire control and corrections of hits much easier and faster and increased the speed of fire as well as the hit propability.;This inventions made fire control and corrections of hits much easier and faster and increased the speed of fire as well as the hit propability.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
torpedo_gyroscope;Torpedo Gyroscope;Torpedo Gyroscope;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
torpedo_gyroscope_desc;This invention turned torpedoes into reliable weapons. It vastly decreased torpedoes form malfunctioning by the movement of waterlayers.;This invention turned torpedoes into reliable weapons. It vastly decreased torpedoes form malfunctioning by the movement of waterlayers.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
weapon_platforms;Weapon Platforms;Weapon Platforms;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
weapon_platforms_desc;Weapon Platforms;Weapon Platforms;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
sea_mine_equipment;Sea Mine Equipment;Sea Mine Equipment;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
sea_mine_equipment_desc;At this point efficienct equipment made it possible to make special vessels that could mine or remove mines from the sea. Mines limited the movement of the enemy and could be very dangerous especially at night or bad weather.;At this point efficienct equipment made it possible to make special vessels that could mine or remove mines from the sea. Mines limited the movement of the enemy and could be very dangerous especially at night or bad weather.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
self_propelled_torpedoes;Self-propelled Torpedoes;Self-propelled Torpedoes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
self_propelled_torpedoes_desc;This new type of torpedo enabled a ship to fire and run. The torpedo would then travel toward its target on its own. They were though still only guided at the moment of firing so it was still tricky to hit.;This new type of torpedo enabled a ship to fire and run. The torpedo would then travel toward its target on its own. They were though still only guided at the moment of firing so it was still tricky to hit.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
armour_piercing_projectiles;Armour Piercing Projectiles;Armour Piercing Projectiles;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
armour_piercing_projectiles_desc;These projectile were specially developed to penetrate the thick armor plates of the capital ships. This invention opened up an evolution of new projectiles as a countermeasure to the ever increasing thickness of the plates.;These projectile were specially developed to penetrate the thick armor plates of the capital ships. This invention opened up an evolution of new projectiles as a countermeasure to the ever increasing thickness of the plates.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
armour_piercing_exploding_projectiles;Armour Piercing Exploding Projectiles;Armour Piercing Exploding Projectiles;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
armour_piercing_exploding_projectiles_desc;These projectile were specially developed to penetrate the thick armor plates of the capital ships. This invention opened up an evolution of new projectiles as a countermeasure to the ever increasing thickness of the plates.;These projectile were specially developed to penetrate the thick armor plates of the capital ships. This invention opened up an evolution of new projectiles as a countermeasure to the ever increasing thickness of the plates.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
armoured_turrets;Armoured Turrets;Armoured Turrets;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
armoured_turrets_desc;By armouring the gun turrets the ship became less vulnerable to hits that made it unable to defend itself.;By armouring the gun turrets the ship became less vulnerable to hits that made it unable to defend itself.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
main_armament;Main Armament;Main Armament;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
main_armament_desc;Main Armament;Main Armament;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
bomb_guns;Bomb Guns;Bomb Guns;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
bomb_guns_desc;These guns fired in a 45 degree angle and shot bombs which was to penetrate the deck of the enemy vessel. The deck was often less armoured than other parts.;These guns fired in a 45 degree angle and shot bombs which was to penetrate the deck of the enemy vessel. The deck was often less armoured than other parts.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
rifled_guns;Rifled Guns;Rifled Guns;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
rifled_guns_desc;This improvement of the guns made them shoot longer and with much better accuracy as the projectiles revolved around their centrepoint.;This improvement of the guns made them shoot longer and with much better accuracy as the projectiles revolved around their centrepoint.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
quick_firing_guns;Quick-firing Guns;Quick-firing Guns;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
quick_firing_guns_desc;These new and smaller guns were mainly used to fight off small and fast ships attacking with torpedoes. Their rate of fire though soon showed that it would be profitable to introduces similar mechanisms for larger calibers.;These new and smaller guns were mainly used to fight off small and fast ships attacking with torpedoes. Their rate of fire though soon showed that it would be profitable to introduces similar mechanisms for larger calibers.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
armoured_citadels;Armoured Citadels;Armoured Citadels;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
armoured_citadels_desc;These were huge armored platforms containing several guns which became less vulnerable to hits that could make the ship unable to defend itself.;These were huge armored platforms containing several guns which became less vulnerable to hits that could make the ship unable to defend itself.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
heavy_caliber_guns;Heavy Caliber Guns;Heavy Caliber Guns;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
heavy_caliber_guns_desc;At this point a new evolution in the caliber of guns had happened. The new behemots of massdestruction could smash through the armour of everything but the largest of capital ships.;At this point a new evolution in the caliber of guns had happened. The new behemots of massdestruction could smash through the armour of everything but the largest of capital ships.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
advanced_naval_design;Advanced Naval Design;Advanced Naval Design;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
advanced_naval_design_desc;Advanced Naval Design;Advanced Naval Design;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
on_board_recon_aircraft;On-Board Recon Aircraft;On-Board Recon Aircraft;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
on_board_recon_aircraft_desc;By adding small flying machines on top of the turrets the ship could get much better reconnaissance. Later on these aircraft would be equipped with machineguns and bombs and eventually become dive bombers.;By adding small flying machines on top of the turrets the ship could get much better reconnaissance. Later on these aircraft would be equipped with machineguns and bombs and eventually become dive bombers.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
gun_hydraulics;Gun Hydraulics;Gun Hydraulics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
gun_hydraulics_desc;By adding hydraulics the gun turrets could be moved quicker and thus aiming took less time, but also the reloading system could be mechanized by hydraulics which made firing speed faster.;By adding hydraulics the gun turrets could be moved quicker and thus aiming took less time, but also the reloading system could be mechanized by hydraulics which made firing speed faster.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
heavy_armour_plates;Heavy Armour Plates;Heavy Armour Plates;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
heavy_armour_plates_desc;By adding extra heavy armor plates to the ship it not only got better protection, but it also gave extra protection against special ordonnance as armor piercing projectiles and torpedoes.;By adding extra heavy armor plates to the ship it not only got better protection, but it also gave extra protection against special ordonnance as armor piercing projectiles and torpedoes.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
large_hull_form;Large Hull Form;Large Hull Form;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
large_hull_form_desc;By making the hull bigger and broader the ship could be equipped with bigger guns and also bigger machinery without loosing stability. The better engines also compensated for the increased weight of the ship.;By making the hull bigger and broader the ship could be equipped with bigger guns and also bigger machinery without loosing stability. The better engines also compensated for the increased weight of the ship.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
modern_naval_design;Modern Naval Design;Modern Naval Design;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_naval_design_desc;Modern Naval Design;Modern Naval Design;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
wireless;Wireless;Wireless;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
wireless_desc;An important development in naval warfare in the early-20th century was the wireless, or radio communications. This allowed naval headquarters to communicate with fleets at sea in order to give updated orders, and also allowed admirals to communicate much more effectively with individual warships in their fleets, in comparison with older methods such as signal flags. However, one drawback of wireless was that it was also possible for the enemy to listen in on wireless communications, and soon the major navies would establish organizations to glean valuable intelligence from enemy communications.;An important development in naval warfare in the early-20th century was the wireless, or radio communications. This allowed naval headquarters to communicate with fleets at sea in order to give updated orders, and also allowed admirals to communicate much more effectively with individual warships in their fleets, in comparison with older methods such as signal flags. However, one drawback of wireless was that it was also possible for the enemy to listen in on wireless communications, and soon the major navies would establish organizations to glean valuable intelligence from enemy communications.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
advanced_fire_control;Advanced Fire Control;Advanced Fire Control;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_fire_control_desc;Advances in main armament and warship construction resulted in capital ships with more and larger main guns, capable of firing shells over great distances. It became increasingly important to simultaneously develop advanced methods of measuring where shells landed and deriving from these observations accurate measurements of where the main guns should be aimed in order to achieve hits on enemy warships.;Advances in main armament and warship construction resulted in capital ships with more and larger main guns, capable of firing shells over great distances. It became increasingly important to simultaneously develop advanced methods of measuring where shells landed and deriving from these observations accurate measurements of where the main guns should be aimed in order to achieve hits on enemy warships.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
15_inch_main_armament;15-inch Main Armament;15-inch Main Armament;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
15_inch_main_armament_desc;The main armament of the first dreadnoughts consisted in most cases of 12-inch or 13.5-inch guns, but modern navies soon began to desire a larger calibre main armament. This resulted in later battleships being armed with 15-inch or 16-inch main guns, which had significantly greater destructive power and range than their predecessors.;The main armament of the first dreadnoughts consisted in most cases of 12-inch or 13.5-inch guns, but modern navies soon began to desire a larger calibre main armament. This resulted in later battleships being armed with 15-inch or 16-inch main guns, which had significantly greater destructive power and range than their predecessors.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
naval_science;Naval Science;Naval Science;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
naval_science_desc;This is the scientific evolution of your navy. Statistics, logistics and well layed plans became an important facett of war. New applications will increase the organization value of your ships.;This is the scientific evolution of your navy. Statistics, logistics and well layed plans became an important facett of war. New applications will increase the organization value of your ships.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
alphabetic_flag_signaling;Alphabetic Flag Signaling;Alphabetic Flag Signaling;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
alphabetic_flag_signaling_desc;Alphabetic Flag Signaling;Alphabetic Flag Signaling;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
naval_plans;Naval Plans;Naval Plans;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
naval_plans_desc;Naval Plans;Naval Plans;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
night_training;Night Training;Night Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
night_training_desc;By training large formations at night the preformance of the naval units under harsh conditions improved and made naval leaders better accustomed to the special tactical situations at night or in fog.;By training large formations at night the preformance of the naval units under harsh conditions improved and made naval leaders better accustomed to the special tactical situations at night or in fog.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
enemy_plotting_cards;Enemy Plotting Cards;Enemy Plotting Cards;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
enemy_plotting_cards_desc;These cards held the full performance and picture of each enemy ship class. This made it easier to know what one was fighting, what its maximum speed was, its main armament etc. This made it much easier to make decisions both on the bridge and out on the combat stations.;These cards held the full performance and picture of each enemy ship class. This made it easier to know what one was fighting, what its maximum speed was, its main armament etc. This made it much easier to make decisions both on the bridge and out on the combat stations.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
target_hit_profile_analysis;Target Hit Profile Analysis;Target Hit Profile Analysis;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
target_hit_profile_analysis_desc;This was a analysis of the attributes of the enemy target to see where to hit and with what type of ammunition to get the best effect.;This was a analysis of the attributes of the enemy target to see where to hit and with what type of ammunition to get the best effect.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
naval_statistics;Naval Statistics;Naval Statistics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
naval_statistics_desc;Naval Statistics;Naval Statistics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
hit_evaluation_reports;Hit Evaluation Reports;Hit Evaluation Reports;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
hit_evaluation_reports_desc;By introducing a system where at least one man at each gun and forward observers reported the effects of barrages, the hit probability increased considerably.;By introducing a system where at least one man at each gun and forward observers reported the effects of barrages, the hit probability increased considerably.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
empirical_interdiction_reports;Empirical Interdiction Reports;Empirical Interdiction Reports;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
empirical_interdiction_reports_desc;By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to interdict the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy interdictions.;By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to interdict the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy interdictions.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
naval_strike_success_criterium;Naval Strike Success Criterium;Naval Strike Success Criterium;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
naval_strike_success_criterium_desc;By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to strike at the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy strikes.;By measuring sealegs and speed of both enemy and friendly ships and earlier behaviour of the enemy. It was possible to opimize where and when to strike at the enemy and also to get realistic forecast of possible enemy strikes.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
naval_logistics;Naval Logistics;Naval Logistics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
naval_logistics_desc;Naval Logistics;Naval Logistics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
underway_refueling;Underway Refueling;Underway Refueling;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
underway_refueling_desc;By introducing special supply vessels naval units could replenish at sea and thus get their endurance vastly improved.;By introducing special supply vessels naval units could replenish at sea and thus get their endurance vastly improved.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
ammunition_conservation_system;Ammunition Conservation System;Ammunition Conservation System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
ammunition_conservation_system_desc;This was the combination of premeasured firing speed and area hit differentiators. It enabled the gun to fire optimized to get the best hit picture at the lowest ammunition usage rates.;This was the combination of premeasured firing speed and area hit differentiators. It enabled the gun to fire optimized to get the best hit picture at the lowest ammunition usage rates.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
radio_telegraphy;Radio Telegraphy;Radio Telegraphy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
radio_telegraphy_desc;The introduction of radio telegraphy revolutionized the mobility at sea as ships no longer needed to wait for orders to come by other ships or by flag signaling.;The introduction of radio telegraphy revolutionized the mobility at sea as ships no longer needed to wait for orders to come by other ships or by flag signaling.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
naval_directionism;Naval Directionism;Naval Directionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
naval_directionism_desc;Naval Directionism;Naval Directionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
political_lobbying;Political Lobbying;Political Lobbying;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
political_lobbying_desc;By having high ranking officers attending politicians and being experts in defense commissions etc the Navy could easily have a strong influence over the political decisions concerning the defense and the security policy.;By having high ranking officers attending politicians and being experts in defense commissions etc the Navy could easily have a strong influence over the political decisions concerning the defense and the security policy.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
military_political_decision_making;Military-Political Decision-making;Military-Political Decision-making;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
military_political_decision_making_desc;In wartime an influential Navy that had lobbied for their cause for a long time could get full control not only over the excecution of the war, but also over the resource management of the country. This could basically be called a Military Dictatorship governed by the Admirality.;In wartime an influential Navy that had lobbied for their cause for a long time could get full control not only over the excecution of the war, but also over the resource management of the country. This could basically be called a Military Dictatorship governed by the Admirality.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
local_military_government;Local Military Government;Local Military Government;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
local_military_government_desc;In a highly militarized society, or a normal society in war, often needed not only military-civilian cooperation boards on a local level, but sometimes most of the local government could be appointed officers. This meant not only a strong military control, but also that the power of the Navy increased disproportionaly in comparison to other governmental agencies.;In a highly militarized society, or a normal society in war, often needed not only military-civilian cooperation boards on a local level, but sometimes most of the local government could be appointed officers. This meant not only a strong military control, but also that the power of the Navy increased disproportionaly in comparison to other governmental agencies.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
naval_integration;Naval Integration;Naval Integration;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_integration_desc;Naval Integration;Naval Integration;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
war_gamming;War Gaming;War Gaming;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
war_gamming_desc;The use of war games to plan and prepare for war is as old as warfare itself, and includes such hallmarks as chess. However, serious analytical naval war gaming emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Major naval powers would use detailed gaming systems that took account of such variables as a ship's armour, speed, and the number and caliber of guns in order to determine battle damage and the ultimate victor. These naval war games were used to test strategic plans, and different means of countering potential enemy strategies and warships.;The use of war games to plan and prepare for war is as old as warfare itself, and includes such hallmarks as chess. However, serious analytical naval war gaming emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Major naval powers would use detailed gaming systems that took account of such variables as a ship's armour, speed, and the number and caliber of guns in order to determine battle damage and the ultimate victor. These naval war games were used to test strategic plans, and different means of countering potential enemy strategies and warships.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
combined_arms_planning;Combined Arms Planning;Combined Arms Planning;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
combined_arms_planning_desc;In the aftermath of the First World War, the major powers put an increasing emphasis on what came to be known as combined operations. This represented the utilization of land, sea, and air forces together to achieve a single strategic objective. Often revolving around amphibious operations, combined operations often fit within larger naval strategic objectives, including the destruction of enemy naval assets and the securing of sealanes. No longer could navies operate in isolation from the other branches of the military, and the development of new tactics was required to integrate naval warfare into the larger strategic perspective.;In the aftermath of the First World War, the major powers put an increasing emphasis on what came to be known as combined operations. This represented the utilization of land, sea, and air forces together to achieve a single strategic objective. Often revolving around amphibious operations, combined operations often fit within larger naval strategic objectives, including the destruction of enemy naval assets and the securing of sealanes. No longer could navies operate in isolation from the other branches of the military, and the development of new tactics was required to integrate naval warfare into the larger strategic perspective.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
naval_leadership;Naval Leadership;Naval Leadership;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_leadership_desc;This is the education and leadership principles used by your officer corps. Better leadership procedures will increase the organization and morale values of your ships.;This is the education and leadership principles used by your officer corps. Better leadership procedures will increase the organization and morale values of your ships.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_command_principle;The Command Principle;The Command Principle;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_command_principle_desc;The Command Principle;The Command Principle;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_professionalism;Naval Professionalism;Naval Professionalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_professionalism_desc;Naval Professionalism;Naval Professionalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
academic_training;Academic Training;Academic Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
academic_training_desc;This meant that to be come an officer it was no longer enough to be of gentle blood. You also had to attend a formal education which could at best be as good as any college. This was one of the most important causes behind the professionalization of the officers corps.;This meant that to be come an officer it was no longer enough to be of gentle blood. You also had to attend a formal education which could at best be as good as any college. This was one of the most important causes behind the professionalization of the officers corps.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
combat_station_training;Combat Station Training;Combat Station Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
combat_station_training_desc;As war at sea became more and more mechanized combat station training became more important. Often this training was done under realistic conditions where two squadrons fought an imaginary sea battle.;As war at sea became more and more mechanized combat station training became more important. Often this training was done under realistic conditions where two squadrons fought an imaginary sea battle.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
societal_status;Societal Status;Societal Status;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
societal_status_desc;At this time the professionalization of the officer corps and the fact the the majority of it consisted of middle class men rather than gentry increased its societal status.;At this time the professionalization of the officer corps and the fact the the majority of it consisted of middle class men rather than gentry increased its societal status.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
naval_decision_making;Naval Decision Making;Naval Decision Making;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
naval_decision_making_desc;Naval Decision Making;Naval Decision Making;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
independent_command;Independent Command;Independent Command;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
independent_command_desc;The old rules said that a officer breaking an order of a higher officer was to be brought to court martial. This made decision-making very indecisive. At this point regulations said that an officer was to carry on the core idea of the order of his superior officer, but how was at his own discretion.;The old rules said that a officer breaking an order of a higher officer was to be brought to court martial. This made decision-making very indecisive. At this point regulations said that an officer was to carry on the core idea of the order of his superior officer, but how was at his own discretion.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
continuous_issuing_of_orders;Continuous Issuing of Orders;Continuous Issuing of Orders;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
continuous_issuing_of_orders_desc;The use of a staff system even at low echelon units enabled commanders to give orders continuously and accurately. ;The use of a staff system even at low echelon units enabled commanders to give orders continuously and accurately. ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
delegated_power;Delegated Power;Delegated Power;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
delegated_power_desc;This meant that an officer could temporary delegate authority to one or more of his subordinates when come to clearly defined areas of responibilities. This meant that he did not have to control everything himself at all times and that he could focus on the important questions.;This meant that an officer could temporary delegate authority to one or more of his subordinates when come to clearly defined areas of responibilities. This meant that he did not have to control everything himself at all times and that he could focus on the important questions.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
naval_risk_management;Naval Risk Management;Naval Risk Management;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
naval_risk_management_desc;Naval Risk Management;Naval Risk Management;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
wargames;Wargames;Wargames;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
wargames_desc;The wargames where staff training. It meant playing out a situation, a fictive war of conflict, and setting to staffs against eachother and training them in order writing, communications and planning. At some degree it also trained their tactical and operational skill.;The wargames where staff training. It meant playing out a situation, a fictive war of conflict, and setting to staffs against eachother and training them in order writing, communications and planning. At some degree it also trained their tactical and operational skill.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
alternative_plans;Alternative Plans;Alternative Plans;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
alternative_plans_desc;By letting the staff produce several alternative plans the best alternative be discerned faster by the commander. Also if things changed the commander and his staff always had an alternative to go for quickly.;By letting the staff produce several alternative plans the best alternative be discerned faster by the commander. Also if things changed the commander and his staff always had an alternative to go for quickly.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
n_saddle_orders;Saddle Orders;Saddle Orders;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
n_saddle_orders_desc;This was the ability to give good order fast and under heavy stress. This was trained, and of course when possible learnt through experience.;This was the ability to give good order fast and under heavy stress. This was trained, and of course when possible learnt through experience.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
naval_nco_training;Naval NCO Training;Naval NCO Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
naval_nco_training_desc;Naval NCO Training;Naval NCO Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
literate_ncos;Literate NCOs;Literate NCOs;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
literate_ncos_desc;When literate NCOs started to flock to the ranks the average quality of the units and the training of the soldiers increased.;When literate NCOs started to flock to the ranks the average quality of the units and the training of the soldiers increased.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
nco_combat_station_training;NCO Combat Station Training;NCO Combat Station Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
nco_combat_station_training_desc;By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with the equipment these not only became pioneers for the men, but also highly competent trainers of the smaller units.;By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with the equipment these not only became pioneers for the men, but also highly competent trainers of the smaller units.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
nco_tactical_training;NCO Tactical Training;NCO Tactical Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
nco_tactical_training_desc;By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with tactical situations these not only became the leaders of the men, but also the initiative takers in combat.;By exessively training the NCOs at the combat stations and with tactical situations these not only became the leaders of the men, but also the initiative takers in combat.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
modern_naval_training;Modern Naval Training;Modern Naval Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
modern_naval_training_desc;Modern Naval Training;Modern Naval Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
amphibious_warfare_training;Amphibious Warfare Training;Amphibious Warfare Training;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
amphibious_warfare_training_desc;The experiences of the First World War had demonstrated not only the potential of large-scale amphibious warfare, but also the limitations of current practices and equipment. As such, in the interwar period the major powers worked to increase their capability to launch effective amphibious assaults. These efforts included not only the development of needed equipment, such as purpose-built landing craft, but also the creation and training of land units specializing in amphibious assaults, and the creation of specific naval strategies and tactics to best utilize warships in support and defence of amphibious operations.;The experiences of the First World War had demonstrated not only the potential of large-scale amphibious warfare, but also the limitations of current practices and equipment. As such, in the interwar period the major powers worked to increase their capability to launch effective amphibious assaults. These efforts included not only the development of needed equipment, such as purpose-built landing craft, but also the creation and training of land units specializing in amphibious assaults, and the creation of specific naval strategies and tactics to best utilize warships in support and defence of amphibious operations.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
naval_exercises;Naval Exercises;Naval Exercises;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
naval_exercises_desc;A critical component of training for war at sea were naval exercises, in which ships would engage in mock-battles and other realistic training missions so as to understand how to act under wartime conditions. These exercises could involve entire fleets and stretch over days if not weeks, and were important not just for the training they gave, but also for the evaluation of the abilities under pressure of officers and sailors themselves.;A critical component of training for war at sea were naval exercises, in which ships would engage in mock-battles and other realistic training missions so as to understand how to act under wartime conditions. These exercises could involve entire fleets and stretch over days if not weeks, and were important not just for the training they gave, but also for the evaluation of the abilities under pressure of officers and sailors themselves.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
financial_institutions;Financial Institutions;Financial Institutions;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
financial_institutions_desc;Financial Institutions are organizations that improve the flow of financial assets in your country. The development goes from having not even private banks to instituting a bank inspection board.;Financial Institutions are organizations that improve the flow of financial assets in your country. The development goes from having not even private banks to instituting a bank inspection board.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
private_banks;Private Banks;Private Banks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
private_banks_desc;Private Banks;Private Banks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
stock_exchange;Stock Exchange;Stock Exchange;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
stock_exchange_desc;Stock Exchange;Stock Exchange;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
multitude_of_financial_instruments;Multitude of Financial Instruments;Multitude of Financial Instruments;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
multitude_of_financial_instruments_desc;The introduction of a multitude of financial instruments, meant not only a smoother flow of capital, but also that the middle class got better return on their private investments.;The introduction of a multitude of financial instruments, meant not only a smoother flow of capital, but also that the middle class got better return on their private investments.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
insurance_companies;Insurance Companies;Insurance Companies;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
insurance_companies_desc;The creation of companies selling insurances made business simpler and safer. Also families took advantage of new intellectual products as home insurances etc.;The creation of companies selling insurances made business simpler and safer. Also families took advantage of new intellectual products as home insurances etc.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
regulated_buying_and_selling_of_stocks;Regulated Buying and Selling of Stocks;Regulated Buying and Selling of Stocks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
regulated_buying_and_selling_of_stocks_desc;This made it not only safer, but also cheaper in the long run to by stocks as the routine for buying and selling was now institutionalized into time and place.;This made it not only safer, but also cheaper in the long run to by stocks as the routine for buying and selling was now institutionalized into time and place.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
business_banks;Business Banks;Business Banks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
business_banks_desc;Business Banks;Business Banks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
liquidation_of_assets;Liquidation of Assets;Liquidation of Assets;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
liquidation_of_assets_desc;This meant that a bankupted firm got its assets sold to pay of the moneylenders. This was a complex but important set of laws that was the first step to a stable juristiction for bankruptcies.;This meant that a bankupted firm got its assets sold to pay of the moneylenders. This was a complex but important set of laws that was the first step to a stable juristiction for bankruptcies.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
capital_for_investors;Capital for Investors;Capital for Investors;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
capital_for_investors_desc;At this point market behaviour had been directed and demand for capital had been focused so that a market for capital had been created.;At this point market behaviour had been directed and demand for capital had been focused so that a market for capital had been created.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
distribution_channels;Distribution Channels;Distribution Channels;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
distribution_channels_desc;As the line for resource to finished value-added product became longer from specialization channels of distribution opened as some companies specialized in distribution to shops. This made the supply side more effective.;As the line for resource to finished value-added product became longer from specialization channels of distribution opened as some companies specialized in distribution to shops. This made the supply side more effective.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
investment_banks;Investment Banks;Investment Banks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
investment_banks_desc;Investment Banks;Investment Banks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
industrial_rnd_investments;Industrial R&D Investments;Industrial R&D Investments;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
industrial_rnd_investments_desc;At this point business starts to make long range production more efficient by investing in the research of new tools and products.;At this point business starts to make long range production more efficient by investing in the research of new tools and products.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
industrial_production_investments;Industrial Production Investments;Industrial Production Investments;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
industrial_production_investments_desc;At this point business starts to make long range production more efficient by investing in new plants and buying low echelon suppliers of parts.;At this point business starts to make long range production more efficient by investing in new plants and buying low echelon suppliers of parts.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
industrial_distribution_investments;Industrial Distribution Investments;Industrial Distribution Investments;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
industrial_distribution_investments_desc;At this point business starts to make long range production more efficient by buying their way into the distribution channel.;At this point business starts to make long range production more efficient by buying their way into the distribution channel.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
bank_inspection_board;Bank Inspection Board;Bank Inspection Board;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bank_inspection_board_desc;Bank Inspection Board;Bank Inspection Board;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
private_bank_monitoring;Private Bank Monitoring;Private Bank Monitoring;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
private_bank_monitoring_desc;By instituting a seperate agency for monitoring the behaviour of private banks the government had a chance to stop bank crashes and also to refrain banks from fraud.;By instituting a seperate agency for monitoring the behaviour of private banks the government had a chance to stop bank crashes and also to refrain banks from fraud.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
market_behaviour_monitoring;Market Behaviour Monitoring;Market Behaviour Monitoring;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
market_behaviour_monitoring_desc;By instituting a seperate agency for monitoring the behaviour of actors on the market the government had a chance to stop firms from crashing and also to refrain them from fraud.;By instituting a seperate agency for monitoring the behaviour of actors on the market the government had a chance to stop firms from crashing and also to refrain them from fraud.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mutual_funds;Mutual Funds;Mutual Funds;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mutual_funds_desc;Mutual Funds;Mutual Funds;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
buying_on_margin;Buying on Margin;Buying on Margin;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
buying_on_margin_desc;As more individuals became involved in investing in securities markets in the early twentieth century, the practice of buying on margin developed to increase the amount of shares that could be bought with minimal initial overhead. The principal of buying on margin is that if the investment makes a profit, the profit would cover the cost of the commission charged for allowing the purchase of large amouts of securities with only a minimal initial investment. The risk involved in this type of investment is that if the investment shows a loss, the difference between the initial investment and the commission charged for the purchase must be made up by the investor. How low an initial margin was prudent for the securities industy to accept would be the subject of intense debate, as lower margins both allowed investors with limited capital to invest in markets, but raised the risk of default by these limited-capital investors should the investments fail to produce profits;As more individuals became involved in investing in securities markets in the early twentieth century, the practice of buying on margin developed to increase the amount of shares that could be bought with minimal initial overhead. The principal of buying on margin is that if the investment makes a profit, the profit would cover the cost of the commission charged for allowing the purchase of large amouts of securities with only a minimal initial investment. The risk involved in this type of investment is that if the investment shows a loss, the difference between the initial investment and the commission charged for the purchase must be made up by the investor. How low an initial margin was prudent for the securities industy to accept would be the subject of intense debate, as lower margins both allowed investors with limited capital to invest in markets, but raised the risk of default by these limited-capital investors should the investments fail to produce profits;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
monetary_system;Monetary System;Monetary System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
monetary_system_desc;A functional economy needs a working monetary system. It need a balanced money stock for the economic transactions to be done smoothly. Also a effective regulation of thiis is also needed.;A functional economy needs a working monetary system. It need a balanced money stock for the economic transactions to be done smoothly. Also a effective regulation of thiis is also needed.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
no_standard;No Standard;No Standard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
no_standard_desc;No Standard;No Standard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
ad_hoc_money_bill_printing;Ad-Hoc Money Bill Printing;Ad-Hoc Money Bill Printing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
ad_hoc_money_bill_printing_desc;Ad-Hoc Money Bill Printing;Ad-Hoc Money Bill Printing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
silver_standard;Silver Standard;Silver Standard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
silver_standard_desc;This meant a currency system based on silver. Money was cheaper to produce by the government which meant that it was rarely any lack of money in the country. The problem was though that the silver prices had a tendency to be dominated by gold prices which meant that foreign trade was often suffering.;This meant a currency system based on silver. Money was cheaper to produce by the government which meant that it was rarely any lack of money in the country. The problem was though that the silver prices had a tendency to be dominated by gold prices which meant that foreign trade was often suffering.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
decimal_monetary_system;Decimal Monetary System;Decimal Monetary System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
decimal_monetary_system_desc;By abolishing non standardized and strange divisions of the currency, like guineas and shillings etc and only having a decimal system like for example the system in the United States (1 US Dollar = 100 cent). The everyday usage of money was simplified.;By abolishing non standardized and strange divisions of the currency, like guineas and shillings etc and only having a decimal system like for example the system in the United States (1 US Dollar = 100 cent). The everyday usage of money was simplified.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
private_bank_money_bill_printing;Private Bank Money Bill Printing;Private Bank Money Bill Printing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
private_bank_money_bill_printing_desc;Private Bank Money Bill Printing;Private Bank Money Bill Printing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
double_standard;Double Standard;Double Standard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
double_standard_desc;This meant a currency system where both gold and silver ran as parallel monetary units. It ensured the state always to be able to produce cheap money, but the difference in price changes between the currencies could have grave effect for the individual citizen.;This meant a currency system where both gold and silver ran as parallel monetary units. It ensured the state always to be able to produce cheap money, but the difference in price changes between the currencies could have grave effect for the individual citizen.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
fixed_intramonetary_exchange_rates;Fixed Intramonetary Exchange Rates;Fixed Intramonetary Exchange Rates;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
fixed_intramonetary_exchange_rates_desc;This meant a system of comparing prices of different currencies, and a simplified syste of buying and selling them. This improved the efficiency of foreign trade enormously.;This meant a system of comparing prices of different currencies, and a simplified syste of buying and selling them. This improved the efficiency of foreign trade enormously.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
central_bank_money_bill_printing;Central Bank Money Bill Printing;Central Bank Money Bill Printing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
central_bank_money_bill_printing_desc;Central Bank Money Bill Printing;Central Bank Money Bill Printing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
gold_standard;Gold Standard;Gold Standard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
gold_standard_desc;This meant a currency system based on gold. Money was rather expensive to produce by the government and this could sometimes result in a low of money stock. However, the good thing was that the gold prices was rather stable and the trust in gold was high and made the currency stable.;This meant a currency system based on gold. Money was rather expensive to produce by the government and this could sometimes result in a low of money stock. However, the good thing was that the gold prices was rather stable and the trust in gold was high and made the currency stable.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
international_monetary_exchange_rates;International Monetary Exchange Rates;International Monetary Exchange Rates;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
international_monetary_exchange_rates_desc;This meant a system of comparing prices of different currencies, and a simplified syste of buying and selling them. This improved the efficiency of foreign trade enormously.;This meant a system of comparing prices of different currencies, and a simplified syste of buying and selling them. This improved the efficiency of foreign trade enormously.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
modern_central_bank_system;Modern Central Bank System;Modern Central Bank System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_central_bank_system_desc;Modern Central Bank System;Modern Central Bank System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
state_bond_monetary_mechanism;State Bond Monetary Mechanism;State Bond Monetary Mechanism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
state_bond_monetary_mechanism_desc;By a regulating a sound state bond system the government could lend money internally and get control of currency flows. This was one important measure to get a stable monetary system.;By a regulating a sound state bond system the government could lend money internally and get control of currency flows. This was one important measure to get a stable monetary system.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
interest_inflation_weapon;Interest-Inflation Weapon;Interest-Inflation Weapon;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
interest_inflation_weapon_desc;By letting the National Bank changing the interest rate the government could, at least to an extent, balance inflation against unemployment.;By letting the National Bank changing the interest rate the government could, at least to an extent, balance inflation against unemployment.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
market_determined_exchange_rates;Market-Determined Exchange Rates;Market-Determined Exchange Rates;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;
market_determined_exchange_rates_desc;Market-Determined Exchange Rates;Market-Determined Exchange Rates;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;
hyperinflation;Hyperinflation;Hyperinflation;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
hyperinflation_desc;For many nations, the socioeconomic strains caused by involvement in wars with other industrial nations resulted in huge deficits that made it impossible to return immediately to the gold standard. Some nations, facing new demands upon their incomes as a result of new social obligations to those involved in recent wars or obligations for being on the losing side of wars, found the demands too great, and sought to resolve their problems by expanding the amount of currency of circulation. With nothing to guarantee the value of the currency, the result would be to rapidly depreciate the value of the currency relative to other currencies or materials such as gold. The social impact of such government policies were traumatic, especially for those who lived on limited or fixed incomes or those who had investments denominated in the rapidly depreciating currency. To many, the willingness of the State to engage in such activity, and the market reaction to such activities, would lead to a search for alternative ideologies to restore order and stability in society;For many nations, the socioeconomic strains caused by involvement in wars with other industrial nations resulted in huge deficits that made it impossible to return immediately to the gold standard. Some nations, facing new demands upon their incomes as a result of new social obligations to those involved in recent wars or obligations for being on the losing side of wars, found the demands too great, and sought to resolve their problems by expanding the amount of currency of circulation. With nothing to guarantee the value of the currency, the result would be to rapidly depreciate the value of the currency relative to other currencies or materials such as gold. The social impact of such government policies were traumatic, especially for those who lived on limited or fixed incomes or those who had investments denominated in the rapidly depreciating currency. To many, the willingness of the State to engage in such activity, and the market reaction to such activities, would lead to a search for alternative ideologies to restore order and stability in society;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
economic_thought_and_critique;Economic Thought and Critique;Economic Thought and Critique;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
economic_thought_and_critique_desc;The scientific development of Economics gave large repercussions into the functions of the world economy, both on a micro and macro level. New ideas and knowledge was swiftly applied by business and the state to increase the efficiency of their work.;The scientific development of Economics gave large repercussions into the functions of the world economy, both on a micro and macro level. New ideas and knowledge was swiftly applied by business and the state to increase the efficiency of their work.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
early_classical_theory_and_critique;Early Classical Theory and Critique;Early Classical Theory and Critique;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
early_classical_theory_and_critique_desc;Early Classical Theory and Critique;Early Classical Theory and Critique;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
late_classical_theory;Late Classical Theory;Late Classical Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
late_classical_theory_desc;Late Classical Theory;Late Classical Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_elliot_cairnes;John Elliot Cairnes;John Elliot Cairnes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_elliot_cairnes_desc;John Elliot Cairnes was a follower of John Stuart Mill. His Slave Power (1862), a defense of the North in the American Civil War," made a great impression in England. He has written about noncompeting groups in the labor market and is known for his distrust of mathematical economics. Among his works are The Character and Logical Method of Political Economy (1857) and Some Leading Principles of Political Economy Newly Expounded (1874). ;John Elliot Cairnes was a follower of John Stuart Mill. His Slave Power (1862), a defense of the North in the American Civil War," made a great impression in England. He has written about noncompeting groups in the labor market and is known for his distrust of mathematical economics. Among his works are The Character and Logical Method of Political Economy (1857) and Some Leading Principles of Political Economy Newly Expounded (1874). ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
robert_torrens;Robert Torrens;Robert Torrens;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
robert_torrens_desc;Robert Torrens was a British army officer and owner of the influential Globe newspaper. Torrens was an independent discoverer of the Ricardo's principle of 'comparative advantage' in international trade (albeit a promoter of 'reciprocal tariffs', rather than unilateral free trade). Torrens was also a co-discoverer of the Ricardian theory of 'differential rent', although, in later editions, recanted the Malthusian population doctrine on which it was partly based. Torrens remained a consistent critic of the 'labor theory of value'. ;Robert Torrens was a British army officer and owner of the influential Globe newspaper. Torrens was an independent discoverer of the Ricardo's principle of 'comparative advantage' in international trade (albeit a promoter of 'reciprocal tariffs', rather than unilateral free trade). Torrens was also a co-discoverer of the Ricardian theory of 'differential rent', although, in later editions, recanted the Malthusian population doctrine on which it was partly based. Torrens remained a consistent critic of the 'labor theory of value'. ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_ramsay_mcculloch;John Ramsay McCulloch;John Ramsay McCulloch;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_ramsay_mcculloch_desc;A prolific Scottish journalist, John Ramsay McCulloch was one of the most ardent and doctrinaire expositors of the Classical Ricardian School. McCulloch began his career as the editor of The Scotsman, eventually moving on to the whiggish Edinburgh Review, where he served as economics editor until the late 1830s. McCulloch used his position at the Review to popularize the Classical theories and promote his favorite economic policies, such as the repeal of the Corn Laws, the retention of the Poor Laws and the legalization of trade unions. McCulloch also lectured on political economy at University College London from 1828 to 1832. In 1838, he was appointed the Comptroller of HM Stationary Office. McCulloch's main work, Principles (1825), was perhaps the first successful 'serious' textbook in economics (and a rather loyal reading of Ricardo's theory). However, McCulloch is often considered a 'lightweight' in terms of the development of economic theory. His main contribution was the ill-fated 'wages fund' doctrine (1824,1825, 1826). McCulloch was also the editor of the 1828 edition of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and the 1846 edition of David Ricardo's Works. He also composed some of the earliest accounts of the history of economic thought (naturally, flattering to the Ricardians). His monumental 1837 treatise provides a statistical account of the failure of the Malthusian population doctrine.;A prolific Scottish journalist, John Ramsay McCulloch was one of the most ardent and doctrinaire expositors of the Classical Ricardian School. McCulloch began his career as the editor of The Scotsman, eventually moving on to the whiggish Edinburgh Review, where he served as economics editor until the late 1830s. McCulloch used his position at the Review to popularize the Classical theories and promote his favorite economic policies, such as the repeal of the Corn Laws, the retention of the Poor Laws and the legalization of trade unions. McCulloch also lectured on political economy at University College London from 1828 to 1832. In 1838, he was appointed the Comptroller of HM Stationary Office. McCulloch's main work, Principles (1825), was perhaps the first successful 'serious' textbook in economics (and a rather loyal reading of Ricardo's theory). However, McCulloch is often considered a 'lightweight' in terms of the development of economic theory. His main contribution was the ill-fated 'wages fund' doctrine (1824,1825, 1826). McCulloch was also the editor of the 1828 edition of Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and the 1846 edition of David Ricardo's Works. He also composed some of the earliest accounts of the history of economic thought (naturally, flattering to the Ricardians). His monumental 1837 treatise provides a statistical account of the failure of the Malthusian population doctrine.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
nassau_william_sr;Nassau William Sr;Nassau William Sr;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
nassau_william_sr_desc;The works of this economist has been printed and distributed in your country. When the academics have debated and refined their dialogue its merits will soon be known by large segments of your population. At this point it will produce changed economic behaviour and procedures in your country.;The works of this economist has been printed and distributed in your country. When the academics have debated and refined their dialogue its merits will soon be known by large segments of your population. At this point it will produce changed economic behaviour and procedures in your country.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
james_mill;James Mill;James Mill;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
james_mill_desc;James Mill was a radical thinker that worked in the shadows of the brilliant, Jeremy Bentham. Together this two men can be described as the inventors of Utilitarianism, and much of its general applicability was explained in Mills works," Elements of Political Economy (1821) and Analysis of the Phenomenon of the Human Mind (1829).;James Mill was a radical thinker that worked in the shadows of the brilliant, Jeremy Bentham. Together this two men can be described as the inventors of Utilitarianism, and much of its general applicability was explained in Mills works," Elements of Political Economy (1821) and Analysis of the Phenomenon of the Human Mind (1829).;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_stuart_mill;John Stuart Mill;John Stuart Mill;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_stuart_mill_desc;John Stuart Mill was the son of James Mill, the famous utilitarian, he quickly became known as one of the more brilliant minds of the United Kingdom, and also one of the more radical. He published several book among them, A System of Logic (1843), Principles of Political Economy (1848), On Liberty (1859), Considerations on Representative Government (1861) and Utilitarianism (1861), all of which made him the centre-figure of socialliberalism and a more humane view of society.;John Stuart Mill was the son of James Mill, the famous utilitarian, he quickly became known as one of the more brilliant minds of the United Kingdom, and also one of the more radical. He published several book among them, A System of Logic (1843), Principles of Political Economy (1848), On Liberty (1859), Considerations on Representative Government (1861) and Utilitarianism (1861), all of which made him the centre-figure of socialliberalism and a more humane view of society.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
collectivist_theory;Collectivist Theory;Collectivist Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
collectivist_theory_desc;Collectivist Theory;Collectivist Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
pierre_joseph_proudhon;Pierre Joseph Proudhon;Pierre Joseph Proudhon;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
pierre_joseph_proudhon_desc;Proudhon was apprenticed as a printer and became interested in politics after he was involved in the printing of The New Industrial and Cooperative World by Charles Fourier. Proudhon now turned to writing and in 1843 published What is Property? In the book Proudhon attacks the injustices of inequality and coined the phrase, 'property is theft'. Proudhon published his most important work, System of Economic Contradictions, was published in 1846. Karl Marx responded to Proudhon's book by writing The Poverty of Philosophy (1847). This was the beginning of the long-term struggle of ideas between the two men. Proudhon was opposed to Marx's authoritarianism and his main influence was on the libertarian socialist movement.;Proudhon was apprenticed as a printer and became interested in politics after he was involved in the printing of The New Industrial and Cooperative World by Charles Fourier. Proudhon now turned to writing and in 1843 published What is Property? In the book Proudhon attacks the injustices of inequality and coined the phrase, 'property is theft'. Proudhon published his most important work, System of Economic Contradictions, was published in 1846. Karl Marx responded to Proudhon's book by writing The Poverty of Philosophy (1847). This was the beginning of the long-term struggle of ideas between the two men. Proudhon was opposed to Marx's authoritarianism and his main influence was on the libertarian socialist movement.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
karl_marx;Karl Marx;Karl Marx;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
karl_marx_desc;Karl Marx was originally disciple of Hegel, but evolved his idealistic philosophy. Later in Paris he began mixing with members of the working class for the first time. Marx was shocked by their poverty but impressed by their sense of comradeship. In an article that he wrote for the Franco-German Annals, Marx applied Hegel's dialectic theory to what he had observed in Paris. Marx, who now described himself as a communist, argued that the working class (the proletariat), would eventually be the emancipators of society. Marx' most influential works were, The German Ideology, The Communist Manifesto, Principles of Communism, and Das Kapital. For most of his life he lived in England where he published his works and from where he bacame the most influential socialist of all time.;Karl Marx was originally disciple of Hegel, but evolved his idealistic philosophy. Later in Paris he began mixing with members of the working class for the first time. Marx was shocked by their poverty but impressed by their sense of comradeship. In an article that he wrote for the Franco-German Annals, Marx applied Hegel's dialectic theory to what he had observed in Paris. Marx, who now described himself as a communist, argued that the working class (the proletariat), would eventually be the emancipators of society. Marx' most influential works were, The German Ideology, The Communist Manifesto, Principles of Communism, and Das Kapital. For most of his life he lived in England where he published his works and from where he bacame the most influential socialist of all time.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
friedrich_engels;Friedrich Engels;Friedrich Engels;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
friedrich_engels_desc;As a young man Engels went to Manchester to help his father manage his cotton-factory. Engels was shocked by the poverty in the city and began writing an account that was published as Condition of the Working Classes in England (1844). Here Engels met Marx with whom he would write and try to organize the international worker organizations for the rest of his life. Engels lived in the shadows of Marx' intellectually, but economically he financed Marx so that he could write. basically there wouldn't have been a Marx without a Engls and vice versa.;As a young man Engels went to Manchester to help his father manage his cotton-factory. Engels was shocked by the poverty in the city and began writing an account that was published as Condition of the Working Classes in England (1844). Here Engels met Marx with whom he would write and try to organize the international worker organizations for the rest of his life. Engels lived in the shadows of Marx' intellectually, but economically he financed Marx so that he could write. basically there wouldn't have been a Marx without a Engls and vice versa.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
eduard_bernstein;Eduard Bernstein;Eduard Bernstein;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
eduard_bernstein_desc;Eduard Bernstein was originally a staunch disciple of Marx and started his life i the German Socialdemocratic Party, but during his later exile in London Bernstein gradually became convinced that the best way to obtain socialism in an industrialized country was through trade union activity and parliamentary politics. He published a series of articles where he argued that the predictions made by Karl Marx about the development of capitalism had not come true. He pointed out that the real wages of workers had risen and the polarization of classes between an oppressed proletariat and capitalist, had not materialized. Nor had capital become concentrated in fewer hands. Bernstein's revisionist views appeared in his extremely influential book Evolutionary Socialism (1899).;Eduard Bernstein was originally a staunch disciple of Marx and started his life i the German Socialdemocratic Party, but during his later exile in London Bernstein gradually became convinced that the best way to obtain socialism in an industrialized country was through trade union activity and parliamentary politics. He published a series of articles where he argued that the predictions made by Karl Marx about the development of capitalism had not come true. He pointed out that the real wages of workers had risen and the polarization of classes between an oppressed proletariat and capitalist, had not materialized. Nor had capital become concentrated in fewer hands. Bernstein's revisionist views appeared in his extremely influential book Evolutionary Socialism (1899).;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
sidney_webb;Sidney Webb;Sidney Webb;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
sidney_webb_desc;Webb developed socialist ideas while at university and in 1885 he joined the Fabian Society. The society believed that capitalism had created an unjust and inefficient society. The members agreed that the ultimate aim of the group should be to reconstruct 'society in accordance with the highest moral possibilities'. The Fabian Society was a 'fact-finding and fact-dispensing body' and it produced a series of pamphlets on a wide variety of different social issues. Many of these were written by Sidney Webb including Facts for Socialists (1887), Facts for Londoners (1888) and The Eight Hour Day (1891). Webb also wrote A Plan on Campaign for Labour with George Bernard Shaw. Webb later became an important socialdemocratic figure with influence in the international worker organizations.;Webb developed socialist ideas while at university and in 1885 he joined the Fabian Society. The society believed that capitalism had created an unjust and inefficient society. The members agreed that the ultimate aim of the group should be to reconstruct 'society in accordance with the highest moral possibilities'. The Fabian Society was a 'fact-finding and fact-dispensing body' and it produced a series of pamphlets on a wide variety of different social issues. Many of these were written by Sidney Webb including Facts for Socialists (1887), Facts for Londoners (1888) and The Eight Hour Day (1891). Webb also wrote A Plan on Campaign for Labour with George Bernard Shaw. Webb later became an important socialdemocratic figure with influence in the international worker organizations.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
karl_kautsky;Karl Kautsky;Karl Kautsky;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
karl_kautsky_desc;Karl Kautsky joined the Social Democrat Party (SDP) and was responsible for drafting the Erfurt Program which committed the SDP to an evolutionary form of Marxism. He also wrote and published The Economic Doctrines of Karl Marx (1887) and Thomas Moore and His Utopia (1888). After a while he broke with Bernstein, whom he viewed to lenient and instead stayed true to his more revolutionary view of socialism.;Karl Kautsky joined the Social Democrat Party (SDP) and was responsible for drafting the Erfurt Program which committed the SDP to an evolutionary form of Marxism. He also wrote and published The Economic Doctrines of Karl Marx (1887) and Thomas Moore and His Utopia (1888). After a while he broke with Bernstein, whom he viewed to lenient and instead stayed true to his more revolutionary view of socialism.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
jean_jaur鑚;Jean Jaur鑚;Jean Jaur鑚;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
jean_jaur鑚_desc;Jaur駸 was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1885. Defeated in the 1889 elections he returned to the University of Toulouse. He became increasingly radical in his political views and after reading Karl Marx he began advocating socialism. He was not a revolutionary and supported the Independent Socialists. While out of parliament Jaur駸 completed his mammoth Socialist History of the French Revolution. He also joined with Aristide Briand and Rene Viviani in 1904 to establish the left-wing newspaper, L'Humanit・in 1904. A new Socialist Party under Jaur駸 grew rapidly at the beginning of the century but split over the correct response to German militarism. Jaur駸 advocated a policy of international arbitration whereas others supported the Triple Entente.;Jaur駸 was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1885. Defeated in the 1889 elections he returned to the University of Toulouse. He became increasingly radical in his political views and after reading Karl Marx he began advocating socialism. He was not a revolutionary and supported the Independent Socialists. While out of parliament Jaur駸 completed his mammoth Socialist History of the French Revolution. He also joined with Aristide Briand and Rene Viviani in 1904 to establish the left-wing newspaper, L'Humanit・in 1904. A new Socialist Party under Jaur駸 grew rapidly at the beginning of the century but split over the correct response to German militarism. Jaur駸 advocated a policy of international arbitration whereas others supported the Triple Entente.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_historical_theory;The Historical Theory;The Historical Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_historical_theory_desc;The Historical Theory;The Historical Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
friedrich_list;Friedrich List;Friedrich List;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
friedrich_list_desc;Friedrich List was a nationalist and romantic critic of economic theory and one of the forefathers of the German Historical School. His best-known work, The National System of Political Economy (1841) was written as against the free-trade doctrines that permeated Classical economics. However, his was not a polemical defense of protectionism. He argued it on the basis of his analysis of economics, which stressed political factors - notably, the 'nation' - in economics. List argued that it was the government's responsibility to foster the 'productive powers' of a nation and, once these were in place, then free trade could ensue, but not before. This is akin to the modern 'infant industry' argument for protection. More relevantly, he devloped a theory of economic 'stages' which was to serve as a blueprint for the German Historical School.;Friedrich List was a nationalist and romantic critic of economic theory and one of the forefathers of the German Historical School. His best-known work, The National System of Political Economy (1841) was written as against the free-trade doctrines that permeated Classical economics. However, his was not a polemical defense of protectionism. He argued it on the basis of his analysis of economics, which stressed political factors - notably, the 'nation' - in economics. List argued that it was the government's responsibility to foster the 'productive powers' of a nation and, once these were in place, then free trade could ensue, but not before. This is akin to the modern 'infant industry' argument for protection. More relevantly, he devloped a theory of economic 'stages' which was to serve as a blueprint for the German Historical School.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
wilhelm_roscher;Wilhelm Roscher;Wilhelm Roscher;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
wilhelm_roscher_desc;A professor at the Univ. of Leipzig (1848-94), he was a founder of the German historical school of economics, which rejected the classical laissez-faire view. Roscher's work emphasized the developmental character of capitalism through detailed historical analyses of the cultures of ancient nations. His System der Volkswirtschaft (5 vol., 1854-94, tr. of 13th ed., Principles of Political Economy, 1878) was an influential textbook in the second half of the 19th cent. His most significant work is Geschichte der National-oekonomik in Deutschland (1874).;A professor at the Univ. of Leipzig (1848-94), he was a founder of the German historical school of economics, which rejected the classical laissez-faire view. Roscher's work emphasized the developmental character of capitalism through detailed historical analyses of the cultures of ancient nations. His System der Volkswirtschaft (5 vol., 1854-94, tr. of 13th ed., Principles of Political Economy, 1878) was an influential textbook in the second half of the 19th cent. His most significant work is Geschichte der National-oekonomik in Deutschland (1874).;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
bruno_hildebrand;Bruno Hildebrand;Bruno Hildebrand;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bruno_hildebrand_desc;Highly critical of Classical theory, Hildebrand spent much of his time attacking Ricardo relentlessly for being materialistic, universalistic and cosmopolitan. Only later in his life did he put his own idea down - in particular, developing a linear 'stages' theory of economic history. His empirical and statistical work, however, did not make much use of these insights.;Highly critical of Classical theory, Hildebrand spent much of his time attacking Ricardo relentlessly for being materialistic, universalistic and cosmopolitan. Only later in his life did he put his own idea down - in particular, developing a linear 'stages' theory of economic history. His empirical and statistical work, however, did not make much use of these insights.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
karl_knies;Karl Knies;Karl Knies;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
karl_knies_desc;Knies's linear stages argument spoke of 'moral progress' which would render most theories obsolete. His 1873 work, however, contained little of the historical method in it. His political involvements earned him temporary exile in 1848. He wrote Political Economy from the Standpoint of the Historical Method (1853), and Money and Credit (1873).;Knies's linear stages argument spoke of 'moral progress' which would render most theories obsolete. His 1873 work, however, contained little of the historical method in it. His political involvements earned him temporary exile in 1848. He wrote Political Economy from the Standpoint of the Historical Method (1853), and Money and Credit (1873).;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
gustav_von_schmoller;Gustav von Schmoller;Gustav von Schmoller;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
gustav_von_schmoller_desc;Schmoller's opposition to Neoclassical economics entered him into a famous methodological debate (Methodenstreit) with Carl Menger. Although many argue that he lost the debate by the simple fact of non-engagement (it is reported that upon receiving Menger's Investigations, he returned it unread to its author and published a 'semi-review' of it claiming that, indeed, it had not even been worth reading), Schmoller nonetheless retained his grip on the German university appointment system and kept Classical and Neoclassical economic theory largely out of German teaching - earning him the eternal emnity of the only potential challenger at the time, Menger's Austrian School. Gustav Schmoller's political involvements were also important, in 1872, he formed the Verein f・ Sozialpolitik, ('Society for Social Policy'), a group of largely conservative economists which supported a kind of corporatist state-industry-labor nexus. Liberals deplored their advocacy for state interventionism and came to label Schmoller and the Historicists as Kathedersozialisten (or 'Socialists of the Chair') - a jest they never entirely lived down.;Schmoller's opposition to Neoclassical economics entered him into a famous methodological debate (Methodenstreit) with Carl Menger. Although many argue that he lost the debate by the simple fact of non-engagement (it is reported that upon receiving Menger's Investigations, he returned it unread to its author and published a 'semi-review' of it claiming that, indeed, it had not even been worth reading), Schmoller nonetheless retained his grip on the German university appointment system and kept Classical and Neoclassical economic theory largely out of German teaching - earning him the eternal emnity of the only potential challenger at the time, Menger's Austrian School. Gustav Schmoller's political involvements were also important, in 1872, he formed the Verein f・ Sozialpolitik, ('Society for Social Policy'), a group of largely conservative economists which supported a kind of corporatist state-industry-labor nexus. Liberals deplored their advocacy for state interventionism and came to label Schmoller and the Historicists as Kathedersozialisten (or 'Socialists of the Chair') - a jest they never entirely lived down.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
adolph_wagner;Adolph Wagner;Adolph Wagner;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
adolph_wagner_desc;Although one of the more active members of Schmoller's Verein, Wagner actually supported Menger in the Methodenstreit. His work on public finance is what he is best known for in economics. Outside economics, he was a companion of Lassalle and Rodbertus - although not sharing wholly in their socialist ideals and of more conservative instincts in political matters, Wagner was a severe critic of unfettered capitalism and recommended state alleviation of the burden upon labor. He wrote Science of Finance Vol 1-4 (1877-1901), and Foundations of Political Economy (1876). ;Although one of the more active members of Schmoller's Verein, Wagner actually supported Menger in the Methodenstreit. His work on public finance is what he is best known for in economics. Outside economics, he was a companion of Lassalle and Rodbertus - although not sharing wholly in their socialist ideals and of more conservative instincts in political matters, Wagner was a severe critic of unfettered capitalism and recommended state alleviation of the burden upon labor. He wrote Science of Finance Vol 1-4 (1877-1901), and Foundations of Political Economy (1876). ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
william_cunningham;William Cunningham;William Cunningham;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
william_cunningham_desc;Cunningham was a vocal opponent of the nascent Neoclassical economics, particularly as propounded by his colleague, Alfred Marshall and the Cambridge School. In economics, he sought to promote the historical method, making him one of the most leading advocates of the English Historical School. Despite the sustained attacks levied by Cunningham, Marshall was sufficiently influenced by his pleas to try to include some more historical content in his work and operate more 'inductively' in the derivation of his economic principles. However, he refused to accept Cunningham's main charge -- that the validity of economic laws is conditional on historical, social and cultural context. Cunningham's opposition to Neoclassicism was not only one of method, but also of politics. Cunningham was deeply opposed to utilitarian philosophy and laissez-faire politics, and penned several tracts defending labor unions and protectionism. He also resurrected much interest in old Mercantilist thought.;Cunningham was a vocal opponent of the nascent Neoclassical economics, particularly as propounded by his colleague, Alfred Marshall and the Cambridge School. In economics, he sought to promote the historical method, making him one of the most leading advocates of the English Historical School. Despite the sustained attacks levied by Cunningham, Marshall was sufficiently influenced by his pleas to try to include some more historical content in his work and operate more 'inductively' in the derivation of his economic principles. However, he refused to accept Cunningham's main charge -- that the validity of economic laws is conditional on historical, social and cultural context. Cunningham's opposition to Neoclassicism was not only one of method, but also of politics. Cunningham was deeply opposed to utilitarian philosophy and laissez-faire politics, and penned several tracts defending labor unions and protectionism. He also resurrected much interest in old Mercantilist thought.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
neoclassical_theory;Neoclassical Theory;Neoclassical Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
neoclassical_theory_desc;Neoclassical Theory;Neoclassical Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
johann_heinrich_von_th・en;Johann Heinrich von Th・en;Johann Heinrich von Th・en;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
johann_heinrich_von_th・en_desc;Johann Heinrich von Th・en was a North German landowner from the Mecklenberg area. Although educated at Gtingen, he spent most of his life managing his rural estate, Tellow. In the first volume of his treatise, The Isolated State (1826), he laid down the first serious treatment of spatial economics, connecting with the theory of rent. His second volume (1850) developed the essence of the marginal productivity theory of distribution in a mathematically precise way, thereby making one of the most important Proto-Marginalists of the era. Nearing his death, he asked that his famous equation for the marginal product of labor, or natural wage, be carved into his tombstone.;Johann Heinrich von Th・en was a North German landowner from the Mecklenberg area. Although educated at Gtingen, he spent most of his life managing his rural estate, Tellow. In the first volume of his treatise, The Isolated State (1826), he laid down the first serious treatment of spatial economics, connecting with the theory of rent. His second volume (1850) developed the essence of the marginal productivity theory of distribution in a mathematically precise way, thereby making one of the most important Proto-Marginalists of the era. Nearing his death, he asked that his famous equation for the marginal product of labor, or natural wage, be carved into his tombstone.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
l駮n_walras;L駮n Walras;L駮n Walras;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
l駮n_walras_desc;The French economist L駮n Walras (pronounced 'Valrasse') has been hailed by Joseph Schumpeter as 'the greatest of all economists'. Walras was one of the three leaders of the Marginalist Revolution, even though his greatest work, Elements of Pure Economics, was published in 1874, three years after those of William Stanley Jevons and Carl Menger. Nonetheless, alone among the three revolutionaries, L駮n Walras set forth the new 'marginalist' or 'Neoclassical' theory in a formal general equilibrium setting. Thus, he endowed it with the multi-market considerations Jevons had largely avoided and the mathematical precision Menger had eschewed. L駮n Walras is widely and rightfully regarded as the father of general equilibrium theory.;The French economist L駮n Walras (pronounced 'Valrasse') has been hailed by Joseph Schumpeter as 'the greatest of all economists'. Walras was one of the three leaders of the Marginalist Revolution, even though his greatest work, Elements of Pure Economics, was published in 1874, three years after those of William Stanley Jevons and Carl Menger. Nonetheless, alone among the three revolutionaries, L駮n Walras set forth the new 'marginalist' or 'Neoclassical' theory in a formal general equilibrium setting. Thus, he endowed it with the multi-market considerations Jevons had largely avoided and the mathematical precision Menger had eschewed. L駮n Walras is widely and rightfully regarded as the father of general equilibrium theory.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
stanley_jevons;Stanley Jevons;Stanley Jevons;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
stanley_jevons_desc;The impact of Jevons on economics can hardly be exaggerated. As the father of Neoclassical economics, his legacy is secure. However, in some ways, he stopped short of the mark. Jevons could have gone further by connecting his insights in pure exchange into a wider theory incorporating production, capital, money and the business cycle in a more systematic and consistent manner that would have knocked the Ricardian School completely out of the picture. Had he not died so young, Jevons might yet have done so, but the next economics treatise he was working on (published posthumously in 1905), did not really seem to go in that ambitious direction. As such, by the time of his death, the Marginalist Revolution was still in its insurrectionist phase. It was still a tentative proposition rather than a firmly-set and integrated system, a scientific hypothesis but not quite yet a science. It should be noted that Jevons made maybe as much for the subject of Logics as for economics, which is quiet a feat.;The impact of Jevons on economics can hardly be exaggerated. As the father of Neoclassical economics, his legacy is secure. However, in some ways, he stopped short of the mark. Jevons could have gone further by connecting his insights in pure exchange into a wider theory incorporating production, capital, money and the business cycle in a more systematic and consistent manner that would have knocked the Ricardian School completely out of the picture. Had he not died so young, Jevons might yet have done so, but the next economics treatise he was working on (published posthumously in 1905), did not really seem to go in that ambitious direction. As such, by the time of his death, the Marginalist Revolution was still in its insurrectionist phase. It was still a tentative proposition rather than a firmly-set and integrated system, a scientific hypothesis but not quite yet a science. It should be noted that Jevons made maybe as much for the subject of Logics as for economics, which is quiet a feat.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
carl_menger;Carl Menger;Carl Menger;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
carl_menger_desc;Carl Menger has been hailed as one of the three leaders of the 'Marginalist Revolution' of the 1870s, along with William Stanley Jevons and L駮n Walras. However, Menger's Grunds舩ze (Principles), published in 1871, eschewed all the mathematical scaffolding that characterized the works of the other two revolutionaries. As such, many economists have insisted that Menger should be placed apart. In one sense, he can be considered different. Unlike Jevons or Walras, Carl Menger founded a proper 'school of thought' which has more-or-less retained its distinctive character since - namely, the Austrian School. His two disciples at Vienna, Eugen von Bm-Bawerk and Friedrich von Wieser did much to advance and forge that school. ;Carl Menger has been hailed as one of the three leaders of the 'Marginalist Revolution' of the 1870s, along with William Stanley Jevons and L駮n Walras. However, Menger's Grunds舩ze (Principles), published in 1871, eschewed all the mathematical scaffolding that characterized the works of the other two revolutionaries. As such, many economists have insisted that Menger should be placed apart. In one sense, he can be considered different. Unlike Jevons or Walras, Carl Menger founded a proper 'school of thought' which has more-or-less retained its distinctive character since - namely, the Austrian School. His two disciples at Vienna, Eugen von Bm-Bawerk and Friedrich von Wieser did much to advance and forge that school. ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
thorstein_veblen;Thorstein Veblen;Thorstein Veblen;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
thorstein_veblen_desc;Thorstein Veblen is to economics what Jonathan Swift is to English literature: a master of the art of satire. Is is essential to effective satire that its message be ambiguous: the reader should never be sure whether the author is absolutely serious or just pulling his or her leg That quality is certainly present in Swift's Gulliver's Travels and it is also present in Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), The Instinct of Workmanship (1914), Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution (1915), The Higher Learning in America (1918), Absentee Ownership (1923), and his many essays. In fact, it is there in everything he wrote except The Theory of Business Enterprise (1904), which is as near as he ever came to writing a conventional academic book. No matter which of these books we open, we find the idea that life in a modern industrial community is the result of a polar conflict between 'pecuniary employments' and 'industrial employments', between 'business enterprise' and 'the machine process', between 'vendibility' and 'serviceability'-in short, between making money and making goods. There is a class struggle under capitalism, not between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, but between businessmen and engineers. Pecuniary habits of thought unite bankers, brokers, lawyers and managers in a defence of private acquisition;Thorstein Veblen is to economics what Jonathan Swift is to English literature: a master of the art of satire. Is is essential to effective satire that its message be ambiguous: the reader should never be sure whether the author is absolutely serious or just pulling his or her leg That quality is certainly present in Swift's Gulliver's Travels and it is also present in Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), The Instinct of Workmanship (1914), Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution (1915), The Higher Learning in America (1918), Absentee Ownership (1923), and his many essays. In fact, it is there in everything he wrote except The Theory of Business Enterprise (1904), which is as near as he ever came to writing a conventional academic book. No matter which of these books we open, we find the idea that life in a modern industrial community is the result of a polar conflict between 'pecuniary employments' and 'industrial employments', between 'business enterprise' and 'the machine process', between 'vendibility' and 'serviceability'-in short, between making money and making goods. There is a class struggle under capitalism, not between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, but between businessmen and engineers. Pecuniary habits of thought unite bankers, brokers, lawyers and managers in a defence of private acquisition;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
alfred_marshall;Alfred Marshall;Alfred Marshall;;;;;;x;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
"alfred_marshall_desc;""He was", first and foremost," a brilliant and original theorist"""""";""He was", first and foremost," a brilliant and original theorist"""""";;;;;;x;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
augustin_cournot;Augustin Cournot;Augustin Cournot;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
augustin_cournot_desc;French philosopher, mathematician and economist, Augustin Cournot has been rightly hailed as one of the greatest of the Proto-Marginalists. The unique insights of his major economics work, Researches into the Mathematical Principles of Wealth (1838) were without parallel. Although neglected in his time, the impact of Cournot work on modern economics can hardly be overstated.;French philosopher, mathematician and economist, Augustin Cournot has been rightly hailed as one of the greatest of the Proto-Marginalists. The unique insights of his major economics work, Researches into the Mathematical Principles of Wealth (1838) were without parallel. Although neglected in his time, the impact of Cournot work on modern economics can hardly be overstated.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
jules_dupuit;Jules Dupuit;Jules Dupuit;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
jules_dupuit_desc;Jules Dupuit was perhaps the most illustrious of the French engineer-economists. Trained at the ノcole des Ponts et Chauss馥s in Paris, Dupuit had a distinguished career as a civil engineer. From his work with infrastructure he was inspired to develop economic theory deeper.;Jules Dupuit was perhaps the most illustrious of the French engineer-economists. Trained at the ノcole des Ponts et Chauss馥s in Paris, Dupuit had a distinguished career as a civil engineer. From his work with infrastructure he was inspired to develop economic theory deeper.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
vilfredo_pareto;Vilfredo Pareto;Vilfredo Pareto;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
vilfredo_pareto_desc;The Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto was one of the leaders of the Lausanne School and an illustrious member of the 'second generation' of the Neoclassical revolution. Although only mildly influential during his lifetime, his 'tastes-and-obstacles' approach to general equilibrium theory were resurrected during the great 'Paretian Revival' of the 1930s and have guided much of economics since.;The Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto was one of the leaders of the Lausanne School and an illustrious member of the 'second generation' of the Neoclassical revolution. Although only mildly influential during his lifetime, his 'tastes-and-obstacles' approach to general equilibrium theory were resurrected during the great 'Paretian Revival' of the 1930s and have guided much of economics since.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
knut_wicksell;Knut Wicksell;Knut Wicksell;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
knut_wicksell_desc;He was a Swedish economist whose work led to the widespread use of the word 'natural' to explain the long-run equilibrium rate of interest. Wicksell had a tremendous influe nce on economist James M. Buchanan. According to Buchanan, his theory of public choice 'was an almost natural consequence of my absorption of the Wicksellian message,' which stated that economists must cease acting as if government were a benevolent despot. Wicksell was a Malthusian and a strong advocate of birth control. He spoke out on moral issues quite often. He is best known for his work in 'Interest and Prices', in which he laid out his version of the quantity theory of money. His version wa s different from the standard view at that time in that he looked at the indirect effect that the money supply has on prices. Wicksell also elaborated on the theory of marginal productivity, which states that the payment to each factor of production equals that factors marginal productivity. He also stated that an efficient allocation of resources does not guarantee equitable distribution, because the preexisting distribution of income determines what form this allocation will take, and the preexisting distributionof income is not always just. The Stockholm School developed its own version of macroeconomics, which was based on Wicksell's work on quantity and price theory.;He was a Swedish economist whose work led to the widespread use of the word 'natural' to explain the long-run equilibrium rate of interest. Wicksell had a tremendous influe nce on economist James M. Buchanan. According to Buchanan, his theory of public choice 'was an almost natural consequence of my absorption of the Wicksellian message,' which stated that economists must cease acting as if government were a benevolent despot. Wicksell was a Malthusian and a strong advocate of birth control. He spoke out on moral issues quite often. He is best known for his work in 'Interest and Prices', in which he laid out his version of the quantity theory of money. His version wa s different from the standard view at that time in that he looked at the indirect effect that the money supply has on prices. Wicksell also elaborated on the theory of marginal productivity, which states that the payment to each factor of production equals that factors marginal productivity. He also stated that an efficient allocation of resources does not guarantee equitable distribution, because the preexisting distribution of income determines what form this allocation will take, and the preexisting distributionof income is not always just. The Stockholm School developed its own version of macroeconomics, which was based on Wicksell's work on quantity and price theory.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
irving_fischer;Irving Fischer;Irving Fischer;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
irving_fischer_desc;Irving Fisher was one of the earliest American Neoclassicals of unusual mathematical sophistication. He made numerous important contributions to the Neoclassical Marginalist Revolution. This Yale economist was an eccentric and colorful figure. When Irving Fisher wrote his 1892 dissertation, he constructed a remarkable machine equipped with pumps, wheels, levers and pipes in order to illustrate his price theory. Socially, he was an avid advocate of eugenics and health food diets. He made a fortune with his visible index card system - known today as the rolodex - and advocated the establishment of an 100 percent reserve requirement banking system. His fortune was lost and his reputation was severely marred by the 1929 Wall Street Crash, when just days before the crash, he was reassuring investors that stock prices were not overinflated but, rather, had achieved a new, permanent plateau.;Irving Fisher was one of the earliest American Neoclassicals of unusual mathematical sophistication. He made numerous important contributions to the Neoclassical Marginalist Revolution. This Yale economist was an eccentric and colorful figure. When Irving Fisher wrote his 1892 dissertation, he constructed a remarkable machine equipped with pumps, wheels, levers and pipes in order to illustrate his price theory. Socially, he was an avid advocate of eugenics and health food diets. He made a fortune with his visible index card system - known today as the rolodex - and advocated the establishment of an 100 percent reserve requirement banking system. His fortune was lost and his reputation was severely marred by the 1929 Wall Street Crash, when just days before the crash, he was reassuring investors that stock prices were not overinflated but, rather, had achieved a new, permanent plateau.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
joseph_schumpeter;Joseph Schumpeter;Joseph Schumpeter;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
joseph_schumpeter_desc;After a quick doctorate at Vienna, Schumpeter roamed about as something of a footloose lawyer until he rejoined academia in 1909. It was while he was teaching at Czernowitz (now in the Ukraine) that he wrote his Theory of Economic Development (1911), where he first outlined his famous theory of entrepreneurship. He argued those daring spirits, entrepreneurs, created technical and financial innovations in the face of competition and falling profits - and that it was these spurts of activity which generated (irregular) economic growth. In 1919, Schumpeter became the Austrian Minister of Finance - unfortuantely, presiding over the hyperinflation of the period, and thus was dismissed later that year. Although excelling as a teacher above everything, Joseph Schumpeter nonetheless completed three more books while at Harvard: his didactic Business Cycles (1939), his popular Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy(1942) - in which he famously predicted the downfall of capitalism in the hands of intellectuals.;After a quick doctorate at Vienna, Schumpeter roamed about as something of a footloose lawyer until he rejoined academia in 1909. It was while he was teaching at Czernowitz (now in the Ukraine) that he wrote his Theory of Economic Development (1911), where he first outlined his famous theory of entrepreneurship. He argued those daring spirits, entrepreneurs, created technical and financial innovations in the face of competition and falling profits - and that it was these spurts of activity which generated (irregular) economic growth. In 1919, Schumpeter became the Austrian Minister of Finance - unfortuantely, presiding over the hyperinflation of the period, and thus was dismissed later that year. Although excelling as a teacher above everything, Joseph Schumpeter nonetheless completed three more books while at Harvard: his didactic Business Cycles (1939), his popular Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy(1942) - in which he famously predicted the downfall of capitalism in the hands of intellectuals.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
eugen_von_bm_bawerk;Eugen von Bm-Bawerk;Eugen von Bm-Bawerk;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
eugen_von_bm_bawerk_desc;Bm-Bawerk's career as a scholar was an intermittent one. The most significant span of scholarly activity was his years at the University of Innsbruck (1881-1889). It was during the 1880s that he first published two of the three volumes of his magnum opus, Capital and Interest. His later years were dominated by his duties as the Austrian Minister of Finance, a position he held, though not continuously, throughout the 1890s and beyond-and for which he is fittingly honored by having his likeness on Austria's one-hundred schilling note. After serving in this capacity and assuming other governmental duties, he returned to teaching in 1904. With a chair at the University of Vienna, he became a colleague of Wieser, successor to the retired Menger. Students who passed through the university during the last decade of Bm-Bawerk's career (and life: he died in 1914) included Joseph Schumpeter and Ludwig von Mises.;Bm-Bawerk's career as a scholar was an intermittent one. The most significant span of scholarly activity was his years at the University of Innsbruck (1881-1889). It was during the 1880s that he first published two of the three volumes of his magnum opus, Capital and Interest. His later years were dominated by his duties as the Austrian Minister of Finance, a position he held, though not continuously, throughout the 1890s and beyond-and for which he is fittingly honored by having his likeness on Austria's one-hundred schilling note. After serving in this capacity and assuming other governmental duties, he returned to teaching in 1904. With a chair at the University of Vienna, he became a colleague of Wieser, successor to the retired Menger. Students who passed through the university during the last decade of Bm-Bawerk's career (and life: he died in 1914) included Joseph Schumpeter and Ludwig von Mises.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
keynesian_economics;Keynesian Economics;Keynesian Economics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
keynesian_economics_desc;Keynesian Economics;Keynesian Economics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_maynard_keynes;John Maynard Keynes;John Maynard Keynes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
john_maynard_keynes_desc;An English economist who challenged the orthodox view of the role of the State in the management of economic forces in society and the relationship between supply and demand in times of economic crisis. Drawing upon the abilities of states to mobilize their economies during wars with other industrial nations, Keynes maintained that the State could use its influence to promote more efficient economic development. But his most radical theory involved the role of aggregate demand in the economy, arguing that it was demand, not supply, that was the final determinant in the levels of output and growth that an economy could produce, and that in times of economic slowdown or crisis, the solution to the crisis involved revival of demand to absorb excess supply and create the conditions for a revival of production to meet further increases in demand. While his theories had many critics, they became highly influential as the twentieth century progressed;An English economist who challenged the orthodox view of the role of the State in the management of economic forces in society and the relationship between supply and demand in times of economic crisis. Drawing upon the abilities of states to mobilize their economies during wars with other industrial nations, Keynes maintained that the State could use its influence to promote more efficient economic development. But his most radical theory involved the role of aggregate demand in the economy, arguing that it was demand, not supply, that was the final determinant in the levels of output and growth that an economy could produce, and that in times of economic slowdown or crisis, the solution to the crisis involved revival of demand to absorb excess supply and create the conditions for a revival of production to meet further increases in demand. While his theories had many critics, they became highly influential as the twentieth century progressed;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
richard_kahn;Richard Kahn;Richard Kahn;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
richard_kahn_desc;An English economist who first developed the concept of the multiplier effect of spending in an economy in the early 1930s. At its base, this is the concept that spending in the economy for goods and services produced new potentials for demand by the providers of those initial goods and services, creating an expansion of demand beyond the initial value of the original spending. Adopted by John Maynard Keynes in his concept of the role of aggregate demand in the functioning of the economy, the concept of the multiplier effect would be increasingly adopted by States facing economic slowdowns by encouraging the State itself to increase its spending in the economy as a way to revive weakened demand and restore economic growth;An English economist who first developed the concept of the multiplier effect of spending in an economy in the early 1930s. At its base, this is the concept that spending in the economy for goods and services produced new potentials for demand by the providers of those initial goods and services, creating an expansion of demand beyond the initial value of the original spending. Adopted by John Maynard Keynes in his concept of the role of aggregate demand in the functioning of the economy, the concept of the multiplier effect would be increasingly adopted by States facing economic slowdowns by encouraging the State itself to increase its spending in the economy as a way to revive weakened demand and restore economic growth;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
ludwig_von_mises;Ludwig von Mises;Ludwig von Mises;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
ludwig_von_mises_desc;An Austrian economist who would challenge the growing influence of Keynesian economics upon the actions of the State in the 1930s. Von Mises argued that the attempt by the State to use its resources to revive demand in the economy created dangerous potentials for inflation of the economy and severe imbalances in the ability of the marketplace to find the balance between supply and demand that would ensure stable economic growth. Von Mises was also a sharp critic of socialist economic models, arguing that such models removed the ability of the market to determine price levels that would ensure adequate supply based on the demands of consumers for goods;An Austrian economist who would challenge the growing influence of Keynesian economics upon the actions of the State in the 1930s. Von Mises argued that the attempt by the State to use its resources to revive demand in the economy created dangerous potentials for inflation of the economy and severe imbalances in the ability of the marketplace to find the balance between supply and demand that would ensure stable economic growth. Von Mises was also a sharp critic of socialist economic models, arguing that such models removed the ability of the market to determine price levels that would ensure adequate supply based on the demands of consumers for goods;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
friedrich_hayek;Friedrich Hayek;Friedrich Hayek;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
friedrich_hayek_desc;An Austrian economist who would challenge the influence of Keynesian economics upon the actions of the State in the 1930s and attach the planned economic models inherent in both socialist and fascist political models increasingly in vogue in the era. Much like his teacher Ludwig von Mises, Hayek attacked Keynesian economic prescriptions for dealting with economic downturns as causing more potential problems than solutions by creating conditions for inflation by raising demand more rapidly than supply could meet. Hayek rejected the idea of central planning in the marketplace as highly inefficient in its ability to produce the supply and quality of goods that would be generated by consumer demand;An Austrian economist who would challenge the influence of Keynesian economics upon the actions of the State in the 1930s and attach the planned economic models inherent in both socialist and fascist political models increasingly in vogue in the era. Much like his teacher Ludwig von Mises, Hayek attacked Keynesian economic prescriptions for dealting with economic downturns as causing more potential problems than solutions by creating conditions for inflation by raising demand more rapidly than supply could meet. Hayek rejected the idea of central planning in the marketplace as highly inefficient in its ability to produce the supply and quality of goods that would be generated by consumer demand;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
market_functionality;Market Functionality;Market Functionality;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,;
market_functionality_desc;This area centres around the functionality of the market. It concerns both the number of actors on the market and the level of regulations to guide its performance.;This area centres around the functionality of the market. It concerns both the number of actors on the market and the level of regulations to guide its performance.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
freedom_of_trade;Freedom of Trade;Freedom of Trade;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
freedom_of_trade_desc;Freedom of Trade;Freedom of Trade;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
market_structure;Market structure;Market structure;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,;
market_structure_desc;Market structure;Market structure;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,;
polypoly_structure;Polypoly Structure;Polypoly Structure;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
polypoly_structure_desc;This mean that the legislation of your country has structured the market in such way that each line of business compromise of numerous firms most of which is of the same size.;This mean that the legislation of your country has structured the market in such way that each line of business compromise of numerous firms most of which is of the same size.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
oligopoly_structure;Oligopoly Structure;Oligopoly Structure;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
oligopoly_structure_desc;This mean that the legislation of your country has structured the market in such way that each line of business compromise of a few firms all of which is of large size.;This mean that the legislation of your country has structured the market in such way that each line of business compromise of a few firms all of which is of large size.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
monopoly_structure;Monopoly Structure;Monopoly Structure;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
monopoly_structure_desc;The legislation of your country has structured the market in such a way that each line of business is dominated by one very large company. ;The legislation of your country has structured the market in such a way that each line of business is dominated by one very large company. ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
business_regulations;Business Regulations;Business Regulations;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
business_regulations_desc;Business Regulations;Business Regulations;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
limited_partnership_company;Limited Partnership Company;Limited Partnership Company;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
limited_partnership_company_desc;This was the first legislation enacting the possiblities for ownership in a firm without direct responibility. This was the first step to ensure infusion of capital form private citizens.;This was the first legislation enacting the possiblities for ownership in a firm without direct responibility. This was the first step to ensure infusion of capital form private citizens.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
joint_stock_company;Joint-Stock Company;Joint-Stock Company;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
joint_stock_company_desc;This legislation increased the possibilities for firms to get infusions of capital in an effective way. It also gave private investors the highest possible return on investment at a certain risk.;This legislation increased the possibilities for firms to get infusions of capital in an effective way. It also gave private investors the highest possible return on investment at a certain risk.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
patent;Patent;Patent;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
patent_desc;This legislation ensured the time-set ownership of the intellectual property of inventions vastly encouraging inventors to produce their ideas and sell it to firms that could manufacture them.;This legislation ensured the time-set ownership of the intellectual property of inventions vastly encouraging inventors to produce their ideas and sell it to firms that could manufacture them.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
trademark;Trademark;Trademark;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
trademark_desc;This legislation meant security for a firm with a special product. The product often had a strong market position because of certain psychological attribute as it was associated with security, quality etc.;This legislation meant security for a firm with a special product. The product often had a strong market position because of certain psychological attribute as it was associated with security, quality etc.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
market_regulations;Market Regulations;Market Regulations;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,;
market_regulations_desc;Market Regulations;Market Regulations;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,;
anti_trust_laws;Anti-Trust Laws;Anti-Trust Laws;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
"anti_trust_laws_desc;This legislation stopped concentration of power on the market. Sometimes an actor became too big and competition diminished on the market which meant that prices was raised unproportionally.;This legislation stopped concentration of power on the market. Sometimes an actor became too big and competition diminished on the market which meant that prices was raised unproportionally.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
financial_regulations;Financial Regulations;Financial Regulations;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
financial_regulations_desc;At this point regulations where introduced to check the activity of individual firms on the financial market.;At this point regulations where introduced to check the activity of individual firms on the financial market.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
banking_regulations;Banking Regulations;Banking Regulations;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
banking_regulations_desc;At this point regulations where introduced to check the activity of individual banks.;At this point regulations where introduced to check the activity of individual banks.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
economic_responsibility;Economic Responsibility;Economic Responsibility;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
economic_responsibility_desc;Economic Responsibility;Economic Responsibility;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
working_board_of_directors;Working Board of Directors;Working Board of Directors;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
working_board_of_directors_desc;The business culture of having a working board of directors meant that those who made the long-run strategic decisions for the company also worked with its daily practises, which paved the way for good decisions.;The business culture of having a working board of directors meant that those who made the long-run strategic decisions for the company also worked with its daily practises, which paved the way for good decisions.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bankruptcy_proceedings;Bankruptcy Proceedings;Bankruptcy Proceedings;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bankruptcy_proceedings_desc;By instituting rules for the proceeding of bankrupcies these not only became simpler and faster, but uncertainty of creditors also decreased.;By instituting rules for the proceeding of bankrupcies these not only became simpler and faster, but uncertainty of creditors also decreased.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
annual_report_proceedings;Annual Report Proceedings;Annual Report Proceedings;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
annual_report_proceedings_desc;By instituting rules for the proceeding of annual reports for the firm the transparency of the market increased to the joy of both investors and owners. It was also easier to monitor firms that had problems.;By instituting rules for the proceeding of annual reports for the firm the transparency of the market increased to the joy of both investors and owners. It was also easier to monitor firms that had problems.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
government_interventionism;Government Interventionism;Government Interventionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
government_interventionism_desc;Government Interventionism;Government Interventionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
priming_the_pump_;Priming The Pump ;Priming The Pump ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
priming_the_pump__desc;In wake of a series of economic shocks that shook the world in the first part of the twentieth century some politicians would become influenced by new economic theories regarding supply and demand and their interplay in times of economic crisis. Based upon the concept that money spent in the economy has a multiplier effect that increases economic activity by generating income that can contribute to new demand, some politicians made appeals in wake of economic declines for 叢riming the pump・to reinflate demand and thus resume economic growth. Not all politicians and economist accepted this argument, and to some such state intervention appeared as an introduction of socialist principles into the economy, but the polticial impact of having the State appear to be actively trying to improve economic conditions made such poltical promises very appealing to those negatively impacted by economic downturns;In wake of a series of economic shocks that shook the world in the first part of the twentieth century some politicians would become influenced by new economic theories regarding supply and demand and their interplay in times of economic crisis. Based upon the concept that money spent in the economy has a multiplier effect that increases economic activity by generating income that can contribute to new demand, some politicians made appeals in wake of economic declines for 叢riming the pump・to reinflate demand and thus resume economic growth. Not all politicians and economist accepted this argument, and to some such state intervention appeared as an introduction of socialist principles into the economy, but the polticial impact of having the State appear to be actively trying to improve economic conditions made such poltical promises very appealing to those negatively impacted by economic downturns;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mixed_economy;Mixed Economy;Mixed Economy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mixed_economy_desc;As the twentieth century developed and the influence of alternative models of economic development outside the capitalist framework began to be implemented in certain societies, some politicians began to consider the possibility that merging what were considered the best elements from both capitalism and command economies could produce benefits for their society as a whole. As a result in some nations moves were made by the State to introduce elements of state direction into certain areas of economic activity while preserving the basic capitalist elements at the root of the economic system. While many more ideologically-driven critics of such policies argued the policies either went too far or not far enough in their transformations of the economy, the results of creating a mixed economic system in terms of both restoring economic production and reducing social tensions were often quite impressive;As the twentieth century developed and the influence of alternative models of economic development outside the capitalist framework began to be implemented in certain societies, some politicians began to consider the possibility that merging what were considered the best elements from both capitalism and command economies could produce benefits for their society as a whole. As a result in some nations moves were made by the State to introduce elements of state direction into certain areas of economic activity while preserving the basic capitalist elements at the root of the economic system. While many more ideologically-driven critics of such policies argued the policies either went too far or not far enough in their transformations of the economy, the results of creating a mixed economic system in terms of both restoring economic production and reducing social tensions were often quite impressive;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
centralized_economic_planning;Centralized Economic Planning;Centralized Economic Planning;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
centralized_economic_planning_desc;As more radical ideological alternatives to liberal democracy gained power in the early twentieth century, the opportunity to reconstruct economic organization based on State direction of economic activity that could be compared to the relative success or failure of traditional market-based economic structures arose. Such programs of centralized economic planning, employed by both communist and fascist regimes, often achieved dramatic initial results in reducing unemployment, increasing output of industrial goods, and removing the problem of conflict between laborer and employer in society, which the regimes would trumpet as proof of the superiority of their systems over free market systems. The social and economic costs to these societies, however, were often very high, and the resistance to State control created the potential for brutal repression. However, to the outside world that new little of the negative consequences of these plans, they seemed to suggest a viable alternative to the free-market systems that had been the hallmark of nineteenth century economic theory;As more radical ideological alternatives to liberal democracy gained power in the early twentieth century, the opportunity to reconstruct economic organization based on State direction of economic activity that could be compared to the relative success or failure of traditional market-based economic structures arose. Such programs of centralized economic planning, employed by both communist and fascist regimes, often achieved dramatic initial results in reducing unemployment, increasing output of industrial goods, and removing the problem of conflict between laborer and employer in society, which the regimes would trumpet as proof of the superiority of their systems over free market systems. The social and economic costs to these societies, however, were often very high, and the resistance to State control created the potential for brutal repression. However, to the outside world that new little of the negative consequences of these plans, they seemed to suggest a viable alternative to the free-market systems that had been the hallmark of nineteenth century economic theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
autarky;Autarky;Autarky;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
autarky_desc;Derived from the Ancient Greek for self-sufficiency, in the early twentieth century autarky was the goal for many States that felt further dependence upon the global economy was a threat to their national independence or the ideological basis of their regimes. In order to achieve autarky, such states would impose huge tariff barriers to imports from overseas, encourage the development of local industries to produce goods previously imported, strictly regulate foreign trade to preserve national income, and investigate the development of alternative substitutes to critical raw materials that were not available to the nation except from the world market. As an economic policy autarky could be called a twentieth-century revision of mercantilism, and while most often used by Communist and Fascist regimes that rejected all or part the capitalist model of economic production, even capitalist nations would resort to elements of autarky in times of economic instability, especially if they controlled large overseas empires that could provide key raw materials;Derived from the Ancient Greek for self-sufficiency, in the early twentieth century autarky was the goal for many States that felt further dependence upon the global economy was a threat to their national independence or the ideological basis of their regimes. In order to achieve autarky, such states would impose huge tariff barriers to imports from overseas, encourage the development of local industries to produce goods previously imported, strictly regulate foreign trade to preserve national income, and investigate the development of alternative substitutes to critical raw materials that were not available to the nation except from the world market. As an economic policy autarky could be called a twentieth-century revision of mercantilism, and while most often used by Communist and Fascist regimes that rejected all or part the capitalist model of economic production, even capitalist nations would resort to elements of autarky in times of economic instability, especially if they controlled large overseas empires that could provide key raw materials;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
import_substitution_industrialization;Import-Substitution Industrialization;Import-Substitution Industrialization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
import_substitution_industrialization_desc;The growth of the global economy in the nineteenth and early twentieth century resulted in increased demand for industrial goods by non-Western societies. However, the realities of war in the industrial age and increasing economic instability of periods of expansion and contraction resulted in non-Western societies at times being unable to meet their needs for industrial goods from the traditional producers of such goods in the West. As a result, an opening for producers in non-Western societies to meet the demand for those industrial goods that could not be acquired easily from the West arose, and industrialization in the non-Western world began to grow. Eventually pressure to protect these new industries from competition from overseas would lead some nations which had maintained political independence to adopt policies of import substitiution industrialization to encourage their societies to break their dependence upon the West for industrial goods and, by extension, strengthen their own societies in the global economic system. Import substitution industrialization would gain in influence during the course of the twentieth century as the resources of the West were dedicated more towards resolving problems in the West;The growth of the global economy in the nineteenth and early twentieth century resulted in increased demand for industrial goods by non-Western societies. However, the realities of war in the industrial age and increasing economic instability of periods of expansion and contraction resulted in non-Western societies at times being unable to meet their needs for industrial goods from the traditional producers of such goods in the West. As a result, an opening for producers in non-Western societies to meet the demand for those industrial goods that could not be acquired easily from the West arose, and industrialization in the non-Western world began to grow. Eventually pressure to protect these new industries from competition from overseas would lead some nations which had maintained political independence to adopt policies of import substitiution industrialization to encourage their societies to break their dependence upon the West for industrial goods and, by extension, strengthen their own societies in the global economic system. Import substitution industrialization would gain in influence during the course of the twentieth century as the resources of the West were dedicated more towards resolving problems in the West;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
tech_organization;Organization;Organization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
tech_organization_desc;This area concerns the internal development of the firms. Internal production procedures and business styles changed over time and cooperated with the changes in economic science.;This area concerns the internal development of the firms. Internal production procedures and business styles changed over time and cooperated with the changes in economic science.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
guild_based_production;Guild-based Production;Guild-based Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
guild_based_production_desc;Guild-based Production;Guild-based Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
organized_factories;Organized Factories;Organized Factories;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
organized_factories_desc;Organized Factories;Organized Factories;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
work_classification;Work Classification;Work Classification;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
work_classification_desc;By classifying work tasks the organization of production was increased and made more efficient.;By classifying work tasks the organization of production was increased and made more efficient.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
work_specialization;Work Specialization;Work Specialization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
work_specialization_desc;By specializing workers and given certain tasks to certain workers tasks was done faster and with higher competence.;By specializing workers and given certain tasks to certain workers tasks was done faster and with higher competence.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
work_control_and_hierarchy;Work Control and Hierarchy;Work Control and Hierarchy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
work_control_and_hierarchy_desc;By introducing work control and hierarchy each workers tasks where supervised in a professional way and decisions on the production floor was decided quick and efficient.;By introducing work control and hierarchy each workers tasks where supervised in a professional way and decisions on the production floor was decided quick and efficient.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
scientific_management;Scientific Management;Scientific Management;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
scientific_management_desc;Scientific Management;Scientific Management;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
sequence_planning;Sequence Planning;Sequence Planning;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
sequence_planning_desc;This meant going through every sequence in the production from buying resources to the selling of the finished goods and to measure them in time and money to make the chain of sequences as efficient as possible.;This meant going through every sequence in the production from buying resources to the selling of the finished goods and to measure them in time and money to make the chain of sequences as efficient as possible.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
inventory_planning;Inventory Planning;Inventory Planning;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
inventory_planning_desc;This meant planning ahead for inventories, tools and machines and having secured funds for new purchases to retain the level of production.;This meant planning ahead for inventories, tools and machines and having secured funds for new purchases to retain the level of production.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
quality_assurance_procedure;Quality Assurance Procedure;Quality Assurance Procedure;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,;
quality_assurance_procedure_desc;This meant introducing a procedure to check that all products had the same and authorized level of quality.;This meant introducing a procedure to check that all products had the same and authorized level of quality.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
time_saving_measures;Time-saving Measures;Time-saving Measures;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
time_saving_measures_desc;Time-saving Measures;Time-saving Measures;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
time_studies;Time Studies;Time Studies;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
time_studies_desc;This meant checking how much time each task too for different workers and then analysing how work could be speed up, either by changing the way a specific taks was done or by moving tasks around in the sequence.;This meant checking how much time each task too for different workers and then analysing how work could be speed up, either by changing the way a specific taks was done or by moving tasks around in the sequence.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
time_clock;Time Clock;Time Clock;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
time_clock_desc;By setting up regulated workhours the efficiency of the production increased. Workers could now work in shifts which further increased it. Though with the new regulation of workhours labourers left the old lifecycle of the farmers being awake from sunrise to sunset and it effected social life and increased tempo and stress.;By setting up regulated workhours the efficiency of the production increased. Workers could now work in shifts which further increased it. Though with the new regulation of workhours labourers left the old lifecycle of the farmers being awake from sunrise to sunset and it effected social life and increased tempo and stress.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
lighting;Lighting;Lighting;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
lighting_desc;By setting up lighting in the factory building the efficiency of the production increased. Workers could now work in nightshifts which further increased it.;By setting up lighting in the factory building the efficiency of the production increased. Workers could now work in nightshifts which further increased it.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
management_strategy;Management Strategy;Management Strategy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
management_strategy_desc;Management Strategy;Management Strategy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
old_style_family_business;Old Style Family Business;Old Style Family Business;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
old_style_family_business_desc;This style of business culture meant that the owners treated the business as a family shop or restaurant. The border between private and business was very unclear. The practise became very emotional and the owners would take much large risk for their business, but at the cost of professionalism.;This style of business culture meant that the owners treated the business as a family shop or restaurant. The border between private and business was very unclear. The practise became very emotional and the owners would take much large risk for their business, but at the cost of professionalism.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
anynomous_investor_business;Anynomous Investor Business;Anynomous Investor Business;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
anynomous_investor_business_desc;This style of business culture meant that the owners treated the business as an investment. Ownership was not about producing and selling things. Instead the only reason for being the owner was to see the business ratios to raise. This practise was professional, but lacked commitment and was intensely risk-aversive.;This style of business culture meant that the owners treated the business as an investment. Ownership was not about producing and selling things. Instead the only reason for being the owner was to see the business ratios to raise. This practise was professional, but lacked commitment and was intensely risk-aversive.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
marketized_smallholder_business;Marketized Smallholder Business;Marketized Smallholder Business;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
marketized_smallholder_business_desc;This style of business culture meant that the owners where either foundations or household investors. This often meant a conservative but sound regime.;This style of business culture meant that the owners where either foundations or household investors. This often meant a conservative but sound regime.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
organizational_development;Organizational Development;Organizational Development;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
organizational_development_desc;Organizational Development;Organizational Development;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
i_scientific_management;Scientific Management;Scientific Management;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
i_scientific_management_desc;A theory of production management developed by Frederick William Taylor in 1911 that asserted that worker productivity could be maximized by optimizing different tasks to those workers who are best able to perform those tasks. In combination with the provision of break times to workers to break the monotony of the daily work routine, Taylor痴 theories of worker management and 吐itting the worker to the job・would come to be embraced as a basic tenet to maintaining and expanding production. However, one limit to Taylorism was its emphasis of the worker as simply part of the production process and as the twentieth century evolved some commentators came to see Taylor痴 approach to worker management as a cause of increased interest in labor unions and socialism among the working class;A theory of production management developed by Frederick William Taylor in 1911 that asserted that worker productivity could be maximized by optimizing different tasks to those workers who are best able to perform those tasks. In combination with the provision of break times to workers to break the monotony of the daily work routine, Taylor痴 theories of worker management and 吐itting the worker to the job・would come to be embraced as a basic tenet to maintaining and expanding production. However, one limit to Taylorism was its emphasis of the worker as simply part of the production process and as the twentieth century evolved some commentators came to see Taylor痴 approach to worker management as a cause of increased interest in labor unions and socialism among the working class;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
human_resource_development;Human Resource Development;Human Resource Development;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
human_resource_development_desc;A theory of production management developed from the work of Elton Mayo based on research into productivity conducted at the Hawthorne Works in Chicago in the United States in the 1920s. Challenging the theories of Scientific Management, the Hawthorne Studies, and the interpretation of the data provided by Mayo, a more 塗uman-centered・approach to worker management as the key to improved productivity was developed. By making workers feel they were a valued part of the production process and not simply 田ogs in the machine・productivity would increase. While the analysis of the data was disputed by many researchers, the arguments gained influence as the twentieth century evolved;A theory of production management developed from the work of Elton Mayo based on research into productivity conducted at the Hawthorne Works in Chicago in the United States in the 1920s. Challenging the theories of Scientific Management, the Hawthorne Studies, and the interpretation of the data provided by Mayo, a more 塗uman-centered・approach to worker management as the key to improved productivity was developed. By making workers feel they were a valued part of the production process and not simply 田ogs in the machine・productivity would increase. While the analysis of the data was disputed by many researchers, the arguments gained influence as the twentieth century evolved;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
aesthetics;Aesthetics;Aesthetics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
aesthetics_desc;This area involves the development and refinements in Literature, Art and Music.;This area involves the development and refinements in Literature, Art and Music.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
classicism_n_early_romanticism;Classicism & Early Romanticism;Classicism & Early Romanticism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
classicism_n_early_romanticism_desc;Classicism & Early Romanticism;Classicism & Early Romanticism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
romanticism;Romanticism;Romanticism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
romanticism_desc;Romanticism;Romanticism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
romanticist_literature;Romanticist Literature;Romanticist Literature;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
romanticist_literature_desc;The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Expressing their emotional response to nature were, amongst others: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats.;The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Expressing their emotional response to nature were, amongst others: William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
romanticist_art;Romanticist Art;Romanticist Art;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
romanticist_art_desc;The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Great artists closely associated with Romanticism include J.M.W. Turner, Caspar David Friedrich, John Constable, and William Blake.;The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Great artists closely associated with Romanticism include J.M.W. Turner, Caspar David Friedrich, John Constable, and William Blake.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
romanticist_music;Romanticist Music;Romanticist Music;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
romanticist_music_desc;The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Of the romanticist era a few composers stand out against the rest. Ludwig van Beethoven, Frederic Chopin and Franz Schubert were among those.;The romanticists finally broke with the classical demands on strictness and correctness. By celebrating and exploring human emotions and imagination, they set the path for future artic movements in the 19th- and early 20th century. Of the romanticist era a few composers stand out against the rest. Ludwig van Beethoven, Frederic Chopin and Franz Schubert were among those.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
realism;Realism;Realism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
realism_desc;Realism;Realism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
realist_literature;Realist Literature;Realist Literature;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
realist_literature_desc;The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each? detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.;The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each? detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
realist_art;Realist Art;Realist Art;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
realist_art_desc;The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each? detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.;The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each? detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
realist_music;Realist Music;Realist Music;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
realist_music_desc;The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each? detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.;The realists opposed the everpresent glorification and dramatisation in the arts. Their ambition was to portray the world naked, just as they saw it with their own eyes. With an unblurred vision and eye for each? detail in their surroundings, they set their focus on the every day life of the ordinary man.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
impressionism;Impressionism;Impressionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
impressionism_desc;Impressionism;Impressionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
impressionist_literature;Impressionist Literature;Impressionist Literature;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
impressionist_literature_desc;The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Litterary impressionism was manifested through mostly symbolic poetry, describing the world in vague, sometimes momentary words. Major writers were Paul Verlaine, St駱hane Mallarm・ and in america T.S. Eliot and James Joyce.;The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Litterary impressionism was manifested through mostly symbolic poetry, describing the world in vague, sometimes momentary words. Major writers were Paul Verlaine, St駱hane Mallarm・ and in america T.S. Eliot and James Joyce.;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,;
impressionist_art;Impressionist Art;Impressionist Art;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
impressionist_art_desc;The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frederic Bazille were among those that defined the era and made some deep impressions in the history of art.;The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, and Frederic Bazille were among those that defined the era and made some deep impressions in the history of art.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
impressionist_music;Impressionist Music;Impressionist Music;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
impressionist_music_desc;The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Claude Debussy was considered the ancestor of musical impressionism, but others like Maurice Ravel, Frederick Delius and Ottorino Respighi were major players in this revolt against the romantic ideals that had dominated music for so long.;The ambition of the impressionists was depicting the world not only as it was seen and known, but also as it was felt and experienced. This ambition led them to explore and extend the boundaries of their tools and traditions. Claude Debussy was considered the ancestor of musical impressionism, but others like Maurice Ravel, Frederick Delius and Ottorino Respighi were major players in this revolt against the romantic ideals that had dominated music for so long.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
expressionism;Expressionism;Expressionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expressionism_desc;Expressionism;Expressionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expressionist_literature;Expressionist Literature;Expressionist Literature;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expressionist_literature_desc;The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within.;The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expressionist_art;Expressionist Art;Expressionist Art;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expressionist_art_desc;The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within. The most important expressionist group was the German school, which included painters Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, and Otto M・ler.;The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within. The most important expressionist group was the German school, which included painters Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Emil Nolde, Max Pechstein, and Otto M・ler.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
expressionist_music;Expressionist Music;Expressionist Music;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expressionist_music_desc;The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within. Music went through a dramatic change during the Expressionist movement. No longer were songs ruled by melody and continuity. Three major expressionist composers are Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Paul Hindemith.;The expressionists rushed to exploit the newly expanded boundaries of expression, and break some of their own. But unlike their predecessors, they did not wish to portray the physical world, but use it as a medium for expressing the emotions, and the soul, within. Music went through a dramatic change during the Expressionist movement. No longer were songs ruled by melody and continuity. Three major expressionist composers are Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Paul Hindemith.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
mass_culture_n_the_avant_garde;Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde;Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mass_culture_n_the_avant_garde_desc;Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde;Mass Culture & the Avant-Garde;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
avantgarde_literature;Avantgarde Literature;Avantgarde Literature;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
avantgarde_literature_desc;Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.;Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
avantgarde_art;Avantgarde Art;Avantgarde Art;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
avantgarde_art_desc;Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.;Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
avantgarde_music;Avantgarde Music;Avantgarde Music;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
avantgarde_music_desc;Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.;Using the newly eveloped means of expressions, the avant-garde gave the means a meaning of itself. Setting off to break down those pillars of tradition that were still standing, the avant-garde spread like seeds in the wind. A few rooted, many didn't.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
surrealism;Surrealism;Surrealism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
surrealism_desc;Evolving from the iconoclasm of the Dada movement, Surrealism sought via its works to engage the public into a voyage of discovery of the inner workings of the mind, where they felt true reality lay in a world increasingly corrupted by incessant materialism and the horrors of modern warfare. Though the term was coined by Andre Breton, its most famous proponent within the world of painting would be the flamboyant Salvador Dali;Evolving from the iconoclasm of the Dada movement, Surrealism sought via its works to engage the public into a voyage of discovery of the inner workings of the mind, where they felt true reality lay in a world increasingly corrupted by incessant materialism and the horrors of modern warfare. Though the term was coined by Andre Breton, its most famous proponent within the world of painting would be the flamboyant Salvador Dali;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
modern_design;Modern Design;Modern Design;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_design_desc;With the rise of modern industrial practices and the increasing availability of new materials for construction purposes, a new school of architecture and design would evolve in the early twentieth century that would mark a radical break with the definitions of style of the past. Following upon the dictum 擢orm Follows Function,・a new focus in architechture and design based around clean lines, verticality and a deliberate lack of orientation would come to the fore in the work of architects such as Louis Henri Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Walter Gropius and Le Courboisier and in schools of design such as the Bauhaus;With the rise of modern industrial practices and the increasing availability of new materials for construction purposes, a new school of architecture and design would evolve in the early twentieth century that would mark a radical break with the definitions of style of the past. Following upon the dictum 擢orm Follows Function,・a new focus in architechture and design based around clean lines, verticality and a deliberate lack of orientation would come to the fore in the work of architects such as Louis Henri Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Walter Gropius and Le Courboisier and in schools of design such as the Bauhaus;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
jazz;Jazz;Jazz;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
jazz_desc;Originating in the fusion of Western musical tradition with elements of traditional African music, Jazz evolved out of the nightclubs of New Orleans in the southern United States in the early twentieth century. Its blend of frentic, intoxicating rhythms, powerful melodies which encouraged improvisation by performers to add their own distinctive touches to each performance, and energetic vocals would hit upon the world just as new technologies to spread new music, such as the phonograph record, radio and sound cinema, provided a platform to showcase it to a worldwide audience. In the 1920s it became one of the dominant forms of popular music in the world, though many of the traditional arbitrers of taste frowned upon its popularity as further proof that society was rebelling against proper authority;Originating in the fusion of Western musical tradition with elements of traditional African music, Jazz evolved out of the nightclubs of New Orleans in the southern United States in the early twentieth century. Its blend of frentic, intoxicating rhythms, powerful melodies which encouraged improvisation by performers to add their own distinctive touches to each performance, and energetic vocals would hit upon the world just as new technologies to spread new music, such as the phonograph record, radio and sound cinema, provided a platform to showcase it to a worldwide audience. In the 1920s it became one of the dominant forms of popular music in the world, though many of the traditional arbitrers of taste frowned upon its popularity as further proof that society was rebelling against proper authority;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
socialist_realism;Socialist Realism;Socialist Realism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
socialist_realism_desc;The growing split between elite and popular forms of cultural production in the early twentieth century would merge with the rise of new anti-liberal political ideologies to result in a backlash against the cultural avant-garde by the growing power of the State in the name of 奏he people.・In both fascist and communist regimes, a new artistic ethos would develop that eoncouraged production that the masses could not only understand, but encourage the installation of the values that these regimes wished to instill upon the societies they governed. For the cultural elite, a stark choice was offered, either accept the limits of creativity imposed by the State in one痴 work, or face the retribution of the State for challenging its authority. In communist regimes this new artistic ethos came to be known as Socialist Realism, but fascist regimes had their own analogous stylistic ethos which was imposed from above;The growing split between elite and popular forms of cultural production in the early twentieth century would merge with the rise of new anti-liberal political ideologies to result in a backlash against the cultural avant-garde by the growing power of the State in the name of 奏he people.・In both fascist and communist regimes, a new artistic ethos would develop that eoncouraged production that the masses could not only understand, but encourage the installation of the values that these regimes wished to instill upon the societies they governed. For the cultural elite, a stark choice was offered, either accept the limits of creativity imposed by the State in one痴 work, or face the retribution of the State for challenging its authority. In communist regimes this new artistic ethos came to be known as Socialist Realism, but fascist regimes had their own analogous stylistic ethos which was imposed from above;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
philosophy;Philosophy;Philosophy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
philosophy_desc;This area is the development of thoughts in general. Specifically though it is the change view of the human being and its consciosness, it is also a discussion concerning the metaquestion of what we can know anything about. However, the areas that Philosophy undertakes is so big it could be called 'a forthgoing discussion about everything'.;This area is the development of thoughts in general. Specifically though it is the change view of the human being and its consciosness, it is also a discussion concerning the metaquestion of what we can know anything about. However, the areas that Philosophy undertakes is so big it could be called 'a forthgoing discussion about everything'.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
late_enlightenment_philosophy;Enlightenment Philosophy;Enlightenment Philosophy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
late_enlightenment_philosophy_desc;Enlightenment Philosophy;Enlightenment Philosophy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
idealism;Idealism;Idealism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
idealism_desc;Idealism;Idealism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
neokantian_idealism;Neokantian Idealism;Neokantian Idealism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
neokantian_idealism_desc;Kants transcendental idealism had meant that the world can only be understood through categories, or ideal concepts that are immanent in us, and empirically. This is sometimes called weak empiricism. The neokantian idealist, however, departed very far from Kant and more or less went back to a more classical idealism though interpreted in a kantian language referring to categories in their analyses of the world.;Kants transcendental idealism had meant that the world can only be understood through categories, or ideal concepts that are immanent in us, and empirically. This is sometimes called weak empiricism. The neokantian idealist, however, departed very far from Kant and more or less went back to a more classical idealism though interpreted in a kantian language referring to categories in their analyses of the world.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
hegelian_idealism;Hegelian Idealism;Hegelian Idealism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
hegelian_idealism_desc;As neokantian thinkers fought over the best way to intepret the knowledge Kant had developed, Hegel a rare breed among philosophers delivered his own version of idealist philosophy. Its main tenants was the philosophical view that the mind or spirit constitutes the fundamental reality which draw history onwards in a semi-deterministic fashion. His influence can not be underestimated, among his disciples was the young Karl Marx who further developed this type of idealism though into a different direction.;As neokantian thinkers fought over the best way to intepret the knowledge Kant had developed, Hegel a rare breed among philosophers delivered his own version of idealist philosophy. Its main tenants was the philosophical view that the mind or spirit constitutes the fundamental reality which draw history onwards in a semi-deterministic fashion. His influence can not be underestimated, among his disciples was the young Karl Marx who further developed this type of idealism though into a different direction.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
proto_existentialism;Proto-Existentialism;Proto-Existentialism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
proto_existentialism_desc;This was not a philosophical movement but disparate philosophers analyzing and discussing concepts and conceptions which they considered flawed. The general notion about things as Intuition, Time, Intellect, and Being had to be reformulated not do create pseudoproblems.;This was not a philosophical movement but disparate philosophers analyzing and discussing concepts and conceptions which they considered flawed. The general notion about things as Intuition, Time, Intellect, and Being had to be reformulated not do create pseudoproblems.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
empiricism;Empiricism;Empiricism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
empiricism_desc;Empiricism;Empiricism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
pragmatism;Pragmatism;Pragmatism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
pragmatism_desc;Pragmatism is perhaps the only peculiarly American school of philosophy. The name denotes a concern for the practical, taking human action and its consequences as the basic measure of truth, value, etc. This translates to experimentation not merely as a method of scientific investigation but as the primary way humans engage each other and the world around them.;Pragmatism is perhaps the only peculiarly American school of philosophy. The name denotes a concern for the practical, taking human action and its consequences as the basic measure of truth, value, etc. This translates to experimentation not merely as a method of scientific investigation but as the primary way humans engage each other and the world around them.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
i_empiricism;Empiricism;Empiricism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
i_empiricism_desc;In its strong form, it is the thesis that there is no reality behind appearances. A weaker form of empiricism admits of the existence of a reality which is, however, trans-empirical. The transcendent nature of reality determines that we can have no knowledge of it and thus must simply catalog the formal relations between appearances.;In its strong form, it is the thesis that there is no reality behind appearances. A weaker form of empiricism admits of the existence of a reality which is, however, trans-empirical. The transcendent nature of reality determines that we can have no knowledge of it and thus must simply catalog the formal relations between appearances.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
analytic_philosophy;Analytic Philosophy;Analytic Philosophy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
analytic_philosophy_desc;Analytic Philosophy;Analytic Philosophy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
i_analytic_philosophy;Analytic Philosophy;Analytic Philosophy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
i_analytic_philosophy_desc;This was originally a disparate movement of philosophers who wanted to free logics and the foundation of mathematics from elder disfunct and inconsistent thesis. It later developed into trying to bridge language and formal logics and thus create a objective realist ground for reality. This took a sidepath into logical positivism. However the objectivist position crashed as one of its early proteg駸 Ludwig Wittgenstein took a 90 degree turn and tried to refute his own earlier position.;This was originally a disparate movement of philosophers who wanted to free logics and the foundation of mathematics from elder disfunct and inconsistent thesis. It later developed into trying to bridge language and formal logics and thus create a objective realist ground for reality. This took a sidepath into logical positivism. However the objectivist position crashed as one of its early proteg駸 Ludwig Wittgenstein took a 90 degree turn and tried to refute his own earlier position.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_logics;Modern Logics;Modern Logics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
modern_logics_desc;Many of those philosophers belonging in some sense to the area of Analytic Philosophy were also those who revolutionized logics. Others where famous mathematicians who as they delved into the fundaments of mathematics developed ideas that were as important for logics as mathematics.;Many of those philosophers belonging in some sense to the area of Analytic Philosophy were also those who revolutionized logics. Others where famous mathematicians who as they delved into the fundaments of mathematics developed ideas that were as important for logics as mathematics.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
logical_positivism;Logical Positivism;Logical Positivism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
logical_positivism_desc;Logical positivists denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy. They asserted that many philosophical problems are indeed meaningless, primarily concerned with the logical analysis of scientific knowledge. They though failed to secure what they themselves considered to be the sound foundation of knowledge and is today most often considered a dead-end.;Logical positivists denied the soundness of metaphysics and traditional philosophy. They asserted that many philosophical problems are indeed meaningless, primarily concerned with the logical analysis of scientific knowledge. They though failed to secure what they themselves considered to be the sound foundation of knowledge and is today most often considered a dead-end.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
philosophy_of_language;Philosophy of Language;Philosophy of Language;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
philosophy_of_language_desc;This is the study of philosophical questions about language, especially about meaning and truth of words, phrases, and sentences in general. It doesn't ask what particular words mean, or whether particular sentences are true. Except of course for words and sentences about the language. Rather, it asks what meaning and truth in general are. It was developed out of Wittgensteins critique of his own earlier work Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, and to some extent the whole analytic tradition.;This is the study of philosophical questions about language, especially about meaning and truth of words, phrases, and sentences in general. It doesn't ask what particular words mean, or whether particular sentences are true. Except of course for words and sentences about the language. Rather, it asks what meaning and truth in general are. It was developed out of Wittgensteins critique of his own earlier work Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, and to some extent the whole analytic tradition.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
phenomenology_n_hermeneutic;Phenomenology & Hermeneutic;Phenomenology & Hermeneutic;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
phenomenology_n_hermeneutic_desc;Phenomenology & Hermeneutic;Phenomenology & Hermeneutic;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
phenomenology;Phenomenology;Phenomenology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
phenomenology_desc;Phenomenology was the view that something 'is' in relation to how it is experienced, its causes, its purposes and its grounds. It is neither correctly described as either realism or idealism, but to some degree refutes both.;Phenomenology was the view that something 'is' in relation to how it is experienced, its causes, its purposes and its grounds. It is neither correctly described as either realism or idealism, but to some degree refutes both.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
hermeneutics;Hermeneutics;Hermeneutics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
hermeneutics_desc;Hermeneutics is either a side-branch, or an evolution of Phenomenology, and stands for a interpretionist view of reality," but its belonging is more clearer associated with idealism than realism.;Hermeneutics is either a side-branch, or an evolution of Phenomenology, and stands for a interpretionist view of reality," but its belonging is more clearer associated with idealism than realism.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
anti__rationalism;Anti- Rationalism;Anti- Rationalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
anti__rationalism_desc;Anti- Rationalism;Anti- Rationalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
existentialism;Existentialism;Existentialism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
existentialism_desc;Existentialism have many mothers. In one way it could be interpreted as a radical individualism traced from Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, but it is more. But it also the notion of the given as not really given but only meaningful through the process of interpretation something that it got from Husserl and more indirectly from Bretano. However it was take further by Heidegger and later Sartre, Beauvoir, and Camus, and became focused on what give meaning to the person , where the person should be understood more like a being that is free to make action and thus create her own meaning than the old cartesian self.;Existentialism have many mothers. In one way it could be interpreted as a radical individualism traced from Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, but it is more. But it also the notion of the given as not really given but only meaningful through the process of interpretation something that it got from Husserl and more indirectly from Bretano. However it was take further by Heidegger and later Sartre, Beauvoir, and Camus, and became focused on what give meaning to the person , where the person should be understood more like a being that is free to make action and thus create her own meaning than the old cartesian self.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
nihilism_and_the_will;Nihilism and The Will;Nihilism and The Will;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;
nihilism_and_the_will_desc;The foundations for the trend away from the emphasis on human rationality in philosophy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would be established with a revival in the interest among some philosophers in nihilism, the rejection of the idea that the life of the individual has any meaning or purpose in the grand workings of the universe. In place of the self-value of the individual as a being, focus was placed on The Will, the human ability to intervene in a situation to his own benefit. Developed most effectively in the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche in the late nineteenth century, the dramatic impact of warfare in the industrial era would lead to further refinement of the concept by philosophers such as Martin Heidegger in the early twentieth century. In its denial of the value of absolutes as guides for the conduct of human behavior, Nihilism would help contribute to the further questioning, and for many the ultimate rejection, of the values and beliefs that had shaped the Victorian world, while the emphasis on Will would encourage action to challenge accepted practices and encourage the construction of new values;The foundations for the trend away from the emphasis on human rationality in philosophy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would be established with a revival in the interest among some philosophers in nihilism, the rejection of the idea that the life of the individual has any meaning or purpose in the grand workings of the universe. In place of the self-value of the individual as a being, focus was placed on The Will, the human ability to intervene in a situation to his own benefit. Developed most effectively in the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche in the late nineteenth century, the dramatic impact of warfare in the industrial era would lead to further refinement of the concept by philosophers such as Martin Heidegger in the early twentieth century. In its denial of the value of absolutes as guides for the conduct of human behavior, Nihilism would help contribute to the further questioning, and for many the ultimate rejection, of the values and beliefs that had shaped the Victorian world, while the emphasis on Will would encourage action to challenge accepted practices and encourage the construction of new values;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
futurism;Futurism;Futurism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
futurism_desc;As the questioning of the values and structures of the Victorian era gained momentum in intellectual circles in the early twentieth century, some intellectuals began to aruge that a clean break with the past was needed in order to build a brilliant new future that the rise of industrial civilization had promised. Beginning as a movement within the arts that embraced new materials and stylistic techniques that attempted to capture the essence of material power and speed, Futurism would soon spread as an idea to challenge conventional structures of society and call for their replacement with a new social, political and economic order that embraced the reality of industrial society;As the questioning of the values and structures of the Victorian era gained momentum in intellectual circles in the early twentieth century, some intellectuals began to aruge that a clean break with the past was needed in order to build a brilliant new future that the rise of industrial civilization had promised. Beginning as a movement within the arts that embraced new materials and stylistic techniques that attempted to capture the essence of material power and speed, Futurism would soon spread as an idea to challenge conventional structures of society and call for their replacement with a new social, political and economic order that embraced the reality of industrial society;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
quantum_theory;Quantum Theory;Quantum Theory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
quantum_theory_desc;The dramatic expansion of scientific knowledge in the nineteenth century would lead to a questioning of the rational model of the basic structures of the universe that had culminated in the work of Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century. As scientific equipment became more precise, discrepancies in the models of atomic behavior as understood in the nineteenth century resulted in further research into the nature of atomic particles and their interaction with forces such as energy. As a result of the work of physicists such as Albert Einstein and Walter Heisenberg, the idea that the basic structures of the universe could be known with precision by humans was shown to be incorrect, and an alternative view that there were elements of unpredictability in the structure and behavior of atomic particles would be proposed. While a major step forward in human understanding of the basic structures of matter, the emphasis of the random nature of some elements of the natural world further shook the Victorian faith in the ability of humanity to understand fully the natural world and reinforced the sense that the world was indeed not built upon completely rational behavior and assumptions;The dramatic expansion of scientific knowledge in the nineteenth century would lead to a questioning of the rational model of the basic structures of the universe that had culminated in the work of Isaac Newton in the late seventeenth century. As scientific equipment became more precise, discrepancies in the models of atomic behavior as understood in the nineteenth century resulted in further research into the nature of atomic particles and their interaction with forces such as energy. As a result of the work of physicists such as Albert Einstein and Walter Heisenberg, the idea that the basic structures of the universe could be known with precision by humans was shown to be incorrect, and an alternative view that there were elements of unpredictability in the structure and behavior of atomic particles would be proposed. While a major step forward in human understanding of the basic structures of matter, the emphasis of the random nature of some elements of the natural world further shook the Victorian faith in the ability of humanity to understand fully the natural world and reinforced the sense that the world was indeed not built upon completely rational behavior and assumptions;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
social_thought;Social Thought;Social Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
social_thought_desc;This area covers the developments in the social sciences and in much influences how the fabric of your society is organized.;This area covers the developments in the social sciences and in much influences how the fabric of your society is organized.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
malthusian_thought;Malthusian Thought;Malthusian Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
malthusian_thought_desc;Malthusian Thought;Malthusian Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
positivism;Positivism;Positivism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
positivism_desc;Positivism;Positivism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
functionalism;Functionalism;Functionalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
functionalism_desc;Functionalism;Functionalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
biologism;Biologism;Biologism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
biologism_desc;Biologism;Biologism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
darwinism;Darwinism;Darwinism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
darwinism_desc;Darwinism is a theory that says that natural selection operates on variations in older species to produce offspring that can be called new species, and that this explains the appearance of all species.;Darwinism is a theory that says that natural selection operates on variations in older species to produce offspring that can be called new species, and that this explains the appearance of all species.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
social_darwinism;Social-darwinism;Social-darwinism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
social_darwinism_desc;Social darwinism is a theory in sociology that says that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority.;Social darwinism is a theory in sociology that says that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
social_science;Social Science;Social Science;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
social_science_desc;Social Science;Social Science;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
sociology;Sociology;Sociology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
sociology_desc;Sociology is the science of society, social institutions and social relationship. It attempts to recreate the effect of certain actions on societies.;Sociology is the science of society, social institutions and social relationship. It attempts to recreate the effect of certain actions on societies.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
social_psychology;Social-psychology;Social-psychology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
social_psychology_desc;Social Psychology is the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another.;Social Psychology is the scientific study of how we think about, influence and relate to one another.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
political_science;Political Science;Political Science;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
political_science_desc;Political Science is the study of government of states and other political units. Theoretically, it is applicable to any political ententity.;Political Science is the study of government of states and other political units. Theoretically, it is applicable to any political ententity.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
social_anthropology;Social Anthropology;Social Anthropology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
social_anthropology_desc;Social Anthropology is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings.;Social Anthropology is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
social_alienation;Social Alienation;Social Alienation;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
social_alienation_desc;Social Alienation;Social Alienation;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_revolt_of_the_masses;The Revolt Of The Masses;The Revolt Of The Masses;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_revolt_of_the_masses_desc;The move towards the establishment of universal suffrage as the basis for determining the balance of political power in society led to an increased sense of hope that with democracy the issues and concerns of The People would finally be addressed. The resulting factionalism caused by the growth of political parties in wake of universal suffrage soon exposed the limitations of liberal democracy as a system for the arbitration of power in society (especially in times of social, economic or political crisis) and led to a great deal of disenchantment with the ideals of democracy as the best system of governance and a search for potential alternatives to more effectively achieve the promises of a better life for all. Written in 1930 by the Spanish intellectual Jose Ortega y Gasset," 典he Revolt Of The Masses・warns of the potential threat to the ideal of liberal democracy in its current limitations and the potential for the masses to overwhelm the political system and replace it with alternatives that in the end would destroy the basic principles of classic liberal democracy unless liberal democracy was able to reform itself to meet the challenges produced by mass politics.;The move towards the establishment of universal suffrage as the basis for determining the balance of political power in society led to an increased sense of hope that with democracy the issues and concerns of The People would finally be addressed. The resulting factionalism caused by the growth of political parties in wake of universal suffrage soon exposed the limitations of liberal democracy as a system for the arbitration of power in society (especially in times of social, economic or political crisis) and led to a great deal of disenchantment with the ideals of democracy as the best system of governance and a search for potential alternatives to more effectively achieve the promises of a better life for all. Written in 1930 by the Spanish intellectual Jose Ortega y Gasset," 典he Revolt Of The Masses・warns of the potential threat to the ideal of liberal democracy in its current limitations and the potential for the masses to overwhelm the political system and replace it with alternatives that in the end would destroy the basic principles of classic liberal democracy unless liberal democracy was able to reform itself to meet the challenges produced by mass politics.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
the_decline_of_the_west_and_the_lost_generation;The Decline Of The West and The Lost Generation;The Decline Of The West and The Lost Generation;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_decline_of_the_west_and_the_lost_generation_desc;The combination of the dramatic social, economic and political transformations undertaken in the nineteenth century with the rise of industry and the devastation produced by mass warfare in the industrial age created a crisis of confidence among many intellectuals that the whole structure of society was under siege and in danger of complete collapse. Oswald Spengler began work on 典he Decline Of The West・in 1911 as the challenges of new social, political and economic forces were shaking advanded industrial societies to their cores, with Spengler concluding that what these societies were experiencing was part of the natural cycle of civilizations that rise, have a period of brilliance, and eventually decline and collapse ・a direct challenge to the Vicotrian idea that modern industrial society could continually be improved as a result of humanity痴 rational abilities. Coined by American author Gertrude Stein, 典he Lost Generation・captured the sense of loss and emptiness that many veterans of Great War felt after surviving the carnage of the battlefields and questioning the values and beliefs that had encouraged their nations to participate in the conflicts in the first place. These themes of decline and loss that Spengler and Woolf developed would dominate the cultural landscape in the early twentieth century.;The combination of the dramatic social, economic and political transformations undertaken in the nineteenth century with the rise of industry and the devastation produced by mass warfare in the industrial age created a crisis of confidence among many intellectuals that the whole structure of society was under siege and in danger of complete collapse. Oswald Spengler began work on 典he Decline Of The West・in 1911 as the challenges of new social, political and economic forces were shaking advanded industrial societies to their cores, with Spengler concluding that what these societies were experiencing was part of the natural cycle of civilizations that rise, have a period of brilliance, and eventually decline and collapse ・a direct challenge to the Vicotrian idea that modern industrial society could continually be improved as a result of humanity痴 rational abilities. Coined by American author Gertrude Stein, 典he Lost Generation・captured the sense of loss and emptiness that many veterans of Great War felt after surviving the carnage of the battlefields and questioning the values and beliefs that had encouraged their nations to participate in the conflicts in the first place. These themes of decline and loss that Spengler and Woolf developed would dominate the cultural landscape in the early twentieth century.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
political_thought;Political Thought;Political Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
political_thought_desc;This area covers the developments in political science and influence the political system of your country and change the attitudes of your population.;This area covers the developments in political science and influence the political system of your country and change the attitudes of your population.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
REMOVE_enlightenment_thought;Enlightenment Thought;Enlightenment Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
REMOVE_enlightenment_thought_desc;Enlightenment Thought;Enlightenment Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
ideological_thought;Ideological Thought;Ideological Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
ideological_thought_desc;Ideological Thought;Ideological Thought;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
authoritarianism;Authoritarianism;Authoritarianism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
authoritarianism_desc;Authoritarianism is the view that authority is the most important value which give balance and stability to it. It is often combined with traditionalism to give an epistemological foundation for who should wield this authority.;Authoritarianism is the view that authority is the most important value which give balance and stability to it. It is often combined with traditionalism to give an epistemological foundation for who should wield this authority.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
hierarchical_order;Hierarchical Order;Hierarchical Order;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
hierarchical_order_desc;Hierarchical Order is a system were several components or levels are dependent on the respective higher one. The components get smaller the higher they are.;Hierarchical Order is a system were several components or levels are dependent on the respective higher one. The components get smaller the higher they are.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
traditionalism;Traditionalism;Traditionalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
traditionalism_desc;Traditionalism is the doctrine that all knowledge is transmitted through the common sense of the people, and that this knowledge that the people bear should be the foundation of society. It fiercely rejects rationalism which it view as a hazardous and counterproductive view of societal transformation.;Traditionalism is the doctrine that all knowledge is transmitted through the common sense of the people, and that this knowledge that the people bear should be the foundation of society. It fiercely rejects rationalism which it view as a hazardous and counterproductive view of societal transformation.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
political_religion;Political Religion;Political Religion;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
political_religion_desc;Political Religion is the doctrine that ties religion and political means together. Knowledge is often viewed as divinely given, and religious truth cannot be disapproved.;Political Religion is the doctrine that ties religion and political means together. Knowledge is often viewed as divinely given, and religious truth cannot be disapproved.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
paternalism;Paternalism;Paternalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
paternalism_desc;Paternalism is the attitude of a person or a government that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good.;Paternalism is the attitude of a person or a government that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
constitutionalism;Constitutionalism;Constitutionalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
constitutionalism_desc;Constitutionalism is a constitutional system of government, usually with a written constitution. It advocates that all actions taken by the government must be in accordance with constitutional principles.;Constitutionalism is a constitutional system of government, usually with a written constitution. It advocates that all actions taken by the government must be in accordance with constitutional principles.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
individualism;Individualism;Individualism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
individualism_desc;Individualism is the belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence. This doctrine also states that the government should not interfere in commercial affairs.;Individualism is the belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence. This doctrine also states that the government should not interfere in commercial affairs.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
rationalism;Rationalism;Rationalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
rationalism_desc;Rationalism is the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth. This doctrine states that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience.;Rationalism is the theological doctrine that human reason rather than divine revelation establishes religious truth. This doctrine states that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
secularization;Secularization;Secularization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
secularization_desc;Secularization is the activity of changing something like art or education so it is no longer under the control or influence of religion. This doctrine also proposes the transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession.;Secularization is the activity of changing something like art or education so it is no longer under the control or influence of religion. This doctrine also proposes the transfer of property from ecclesiastical to civil possession.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
social_conscience;Social Conscience;Social Conscience;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
social_conscience_desc;Social Conscience is motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a societies as well as individuals thoughts and actions.;Social Conscience is motivation deriving logically from ethical or moral principles that govern a societies as well as individuals thoughts and actions.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
egalitarianism;Egalitarianism;Egalitarianism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
egalitarianism_desc;Egalitarianism is the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political, economic and social equality.;Egalitarianism is the doctrine of the equality of mankind and the desirability of political, economic and social equality.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
collectivism;Collectivism;Collectivism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
collectivism_desc;Collectivism is a political theory that the people should own all the means of production.;Collectivism is a political theory that the people should own all the means of production.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
determinism;Determinism;Determinism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
determinism_desc;Determinism is a philosophical doctrine holding that all events are inevitable consequences of sufficient causes. This is often understood as denying the possibility of free will.;Determinism is a philosophical doctrine holding that all events are inevitable consequences of sufficient causes. This is often understood as denying the possibility of free will.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
atheism;Atheism;Atheism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
atheism_desc;Atheism is the doctrine or belief that there is no God. People sharing this belief often resort to different means to compensate for the lack of a 'higher figure'.;Atheism is the doctrine or belief that there is no God. People sharing this belief often resort to different means to compensate for the lack of a 'higher figure'.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
social_justice;Social Justice;Social Justice;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
social_justice_desc;Social justice is about preventing human rights abuses and ensuring adherence to international law.;Social justice is about preventing human rights abuses and ensuring adherence to international law.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
state_n_government;State & Government;State & Government;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
state_n_government_desc;State & Government;State & Government;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
populism_vs._establishment;Populism vs. Establishment;Populism vs. Establishment;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
populism_vs._establishment_desc;For gaining power, the would-be politician would usually try to obtain the support of people already well-established in the elite. It was the easiest road for climbing the power ladder, but a minority of them, mostly coming from a more liberal bourgeoisie, bet instead on the support from the uneducated masses, excluded from the political scene.;For gaining power, the would-be politician would usually try to obtain the support of people already well-established in the elite. It was the easiest road for climbing the power ladder, but a minority of them, mostly coming from a more liberal bourgeoisie, bet instead on the support from the uneducated masses, excluded from the political scene.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
clericalism_vs._anticlericalism;Clericalism vs. Anticlericalism;Clericalism vs. Anticlericalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
clericalism_vs._anticlericalism_desc;The elites had, for centuries, allied with the clergy for maintaining social order by the belief in God and His church. A spread of the ideas inherited from the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution boosted, both among the liberals and the socialists, the thought that both the State and society had to be freed from the yoke of religion.;The elites had, for centuries, allied with the clergy for maintaining social order by the belief in God and His church. A spread of the ideas inherited from the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution boosted, both among the liberals and the socialists, the thought that both the State and society had to be freed from the yoke of religion.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
bureaucracy_vs._nepotism;Bureaucracy vs. Nepotism;Bureaucracy vs. Nepotism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bureaucracy_vs._nepotism_desc;Civil services, always seeking maximum effeciency, progressively tried to free themselves from political control. They began to set their own sets of regulations and hire their own staff. In other countries, however, civil servants were chosen among political supporters and allies. By use of patronage the administration was thus kept into line.;Civil services, always seeking maximum effeciency, progressively tried to free themselves from political control. They began to set their own sets of regulations and hire their own staff. In other countries, however, civil servants were chosen among political supporters and allies. By use of patronage the administration was thus kept into line.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
meritocracy_vs._aristocracy;Meritocracy vs. Aristocracy;Meritocracy vs. Aristocracy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
meritocracy_vs._aristocracy_desc;Birth and blood had always been an unbearable limit for the ambitions of the bourgeoisie. For them, logically, men with talents and merits should be promoted. However, the privileges of the old aristocracy keep the commoners into inferior stratas, as only nobility of birth and tradition would be the sole determinent of the fittest of men.;Birth and blood had always been an unbearable limit for the ambitions of the bourgeoisie. For them, logically, men with talents and merits should be promoted. However, the privileges of the old aristocracy keep the commoners into inferior stratas, as only nobility of birth and tradition would be the sole determinent of the fittest of men.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
nationalism_n_imperialism;Nationalism & Imperialism;Nationalism & Imperialism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
nationalism_n_imperialism_desc;Nationalism & Imperialism;Nationalism & Imperialism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
national_fraternity;National Fraternity;National Fraternity;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
national_fraternity_desc;The cohesion of nations is not always built over the spilt blood of other nations. It is also built by the belief that the people inside a territorial entity are like brothers, sharing common goals, ties, and symbols. The discovery of a common past and similarities in culture ensure that the people still wishes to live together inside one nation, even against external threat.;The cohesion of nations is not always built over the spilt blood of other nations. It is also built by the belief that the people inside a territorial entity are like brothers, sharing common goals, ties, and symbols. The discovery of a common past and similarities in culture ensure that the people still wishes to live together inside one nation, even against external threat.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
biased_multiculturalism;Biased Multiculturalism;Biased Multiculturalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
biased_multiculturalism_desc;Multiculturalism means the acceptation that many cultures may cohabit equally inside a political entity. However, some cultures are more equal than others. While members of some cultures may be welcome with open arms, others are, on the other hand, either considered 'persona non grata', expelled or even encouraged to leave the country.;Multiculturalism means the acceptation that many cultures may cohabit equally inside a political entity. However, some cultures are more equal than others. While members of some cultures may be welcome with open arms, others are, on the other hand, either considered 'persona non grata', expelled or even encouraged to leave the country.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
manifest_destiny;Manifest Destiny;Manifest Destiny;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
manifest_destiny_desc;The doctrine of 'Manifest Destiny' appeared first in the United States in the 1840s to justify the its' need to expand westward. Already in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine had forbidden America to European colonization. The United States had new a duty to reach its continental boundaries and expand its civilization all over the continent. The basic idea was that the nation was destined to greatness and expansion.;The doctrine of 'Manifest Destiny' appeared first in the United States in the 1840s to justify the its' need to expand westward. Already in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine had forbidden America to European colonization. The United States had new a duty to reach its continental boundaries and expand its civilization all over the continent. The basic idea was that the nation was destined to greatness and expansion.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
expansionism;Expansionism;Expansionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
expansionism_desc;An expansionist country seeks to expand its territory, influence, or power over a territory, population, or political entity by any means deemed necessary, ultimately by use of armed force. At it threatens peace and stability, neighboring states and great powers rarely let a country expand by force without responding to the threat.;An expansionist country seeks to expand its territory, influence, or power over a territory, population, or political entity by any means deemed necessary, ultimately by use of armed force. At it threatens peace and stability, neighboring states and great powers rarely let a country expand by force without responding to the threat.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
mission_to_civilize;Mission to Civilize;Mission to Civilize;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mission_to_civilize_desc;This was the idea that what was defined as the uncivilized world needed to be civilized and that its inhabitants was like children who needed to be enlightened by a fair but harsh hand. This was the ideology that lead and justified the colonialization and occupation done by the Great Powers.;This was the idea that what was defined as the uncivilized world needed to be civilized and that its inhabitants was like children who needed to be enlightened by a fair but harsh hand. This was the ideology that lead and justified the colonialization and occupation done by the Great Powers.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
separatism;Separatism;Separatism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
separatism_desc;The idea of national sovereignity and the view that a people was a distinct group based on blood and language with certain rights evolved during the century and at several spots these ethnic groups started to work for independence.;The idea of national sovereignity and the view that a people was a distinct group based on blood and language with certain rights evolved during the century and at several spots these ethnic groups started to work for independence.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
national_trauma;National Trauma;National Trauma;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
national_trauma_desc;When a population have been told that it is indefeatable for years, and it suddenly it loses a war, it can trigger a National Trauma. It means that to much psychological energy is spent at trying to understand why the country was lost and whom should be judged responsible. Sometimes this can trigger revanschism though.;When a population have been told that it is indefeatable for years, and it suddenly it loses a war, it can trigger a National Trauma. It means that to much psychological energy is spent at trying to understand why the country was lost and whom should be judged responsible. Sometimes this can trigger revanschism though.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
revanchism;Revanchism;Revanchism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
revanchism_desc;After having lost an important war against a main competitor many population groups will call for revenge and a new war to cleanse the dirt from the honor of the Nation.;After having lost an important war against a main competitor many population groups will call for revenge and a new war to cleanse the dirt from the honor of the Nation.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
revolution_n_counterrevolution;Revolution & Counterrevolution;Revolution & Counterrevolution;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
revolution_n_counterrevolution_desc;Revolution & Counterrevolution;Revolution & Counterrevolution;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
dogma_of_violence;Dogma of Violence;Dogma of Violence;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
dogma_of_violence_desc;At certain point a line of thought that developed from general radicalism was the dogma of violence, which meant that only by the forced means of violence could the old society be removed and the new one created.;At certain point a line of thought that developed from general radicalism was the dogma of violence, which meant that only by the forced means of violence could the old society be removed and the new one created.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,
dogma_of_mass_action;Dogma of Mass Action;Dogma of Mass Action;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
dogma_of_mass_action_desc;At certain point a line of thought that developed from general radicalism was the dogma of mass action, which meant that only by means of mass actions as rallying and strikes could the consciousness level of the worker be raised adequately for him to understand what to be good for him.;At certain point a line of thought that developed from general radicalism was the dogma of mass action, which meant that only by means of mass actions as rallying and strikes could the consciousness level of the worker be raised adequately for him to understand what to be good for him.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
terrorism;Terrorism;Terrorism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
terrorism_desc;By the use of random violence the public would get to know the evil face of the police state and its blind justice swinging back at the innocents.;By the use of random violence the public would get to know the evil face of the police state and its blind justice swinging back at the innocents.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
general_strikes;General Strikes;General Strikes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
general_strikes_desc;At this time political goals was achievable by General Strikes or even by the threat of the same. ;At this time political goals was achievable by General Strikes or even by the threat of the same. ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
secret_police;Secret Police;Secret Police;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
secret_police_desc;This special department of the Police was instituted to get at political groups disrespecting the current order. For people in general this could be understood either as a fair and good institution or an evil repressive face of power.;This special department of the Police was instituted to get at political groups disrespecting the current order. For people in general this could be understood either as a fair and good institution or an evil repressive face of power.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
womens_suffrage_movement;Women's Suffrage Movement;Women's Suffrage Movement;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
womens_suffrage_movement_desc;This protest movement had as its aim to raise the subjugated position of women as well as giving them voting rights. They used passive resistance, protests and marches. The violence used against them was abhorred in many circles and eventually women won the day. Still there will be many more fights that have to be won...;This protest movement had as its aim to raise the subjugated position of women as well as giving them voting rights. They used passive resistance, protests and marches. The violence used against them was abhorred in many circles and eventually women won the day. Still there will be many more fights that have to be won...;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
rhetoric_of_hate;Rhetoric of Hate;Rhetoric of Hate;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
rhetoric_of_hate_desc;This was a certain brand of public speeching which incited hate and the urge to do violence against a certain group in society. Most governments tried to forbid and stop such activities, but at some points they were unable to.;This was a certain brand of public speeching which incited hate and the urge to do violence against a certain group in society. Most governments tried to forbid and stop such activities, but at some points they were unable to.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
nostalgic_romanticism;Nostalgic Romanticism;Nostalgic Romanticism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
nostalgic_romanticism_desc;This was a general cultural thema where the glory of the past was raised to nigh-on-divine status. As equality and plurality were ideas of the future, Nostalgic Romaticism, quickly became a reactionary movement raising the goblet for absolute monarchy and the church of the fathers.;This was a general cultural thema where the glory of the past was raised to nigh-on-divine status. As equality and plurality were ideas of the future, Nostalgic Romaticism, quickly became a reactionary movement raising the goblet for absolute monarchy and the church of the fathers.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
anti_egalitarianism;Anti-Egalitarianism;Anti-Egalitarianism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
anti_egalitarianism_desc;This view is based on the theory of natural justice, which says that how people are born can never be injust. Justice is completely relational. The effect is that the view that actions must be made to increase eequality is wrong, if such action is not correcting a legal error.;This view is based on the theory of natural justice, which says that how people are born can never be injust. Justice is completely relational. The effect is that the view that actions must be made to increase eequality is wrong, if such action is not correcting a legal error.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
vangaurd_party;Vangaurd Party;Vangaurd Party;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
vangaurd_party_desc;As the Socialist movement grew in influence in some industrial nations, in other societies that were less industrialized the idea that the working class could lead an overthrow of the State and seize power was realized to be limited. Coined by the Russian socialist Vladimir Lenin in 1902, the concept of the vanguard party was that a small group of dedicated revolutionaries could lead the struggle for revolution in the name of the masses who lacked the ability or desire to carry out revolution themselves and, having achieved power in their name, establish control over the State and carry out the transformations necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of the socialist movement, the worker痴 utopia. While most influential within Leftist political circles in the early twentieth century, the concept of an ideological vanguard seizing power on behalf of groups in society as a whole would also be influential on the Right as ultranantionalist movements began to move towards a more concrete ideological system, Fascism;As the Socialist movement grew in influence in some industrial nations, in other societies that were less industrialized the idea that the working class could lead an overthrow of the State and seize power was realized to be limited. Coined by the Russian socialist Vladimir Lenin in 1902, the concept of the vanguard party was that a small group of dedicated revolutionaries could lead the struggle for revolution in the name of the masses who lacked the ability or desire to carry out revolution themselves and, having achieved power in their name, establish control over the State and carry out the transformations necessary to achieve the ultimate goal of the socialist movement, the worker痴 utopia. While most influential within Leftist political circles in the early twentieth century, the concept of an ideological vanguard seizing power on behalf of groups in society as a whole would also be influential on the Right as ultranantionalist movements began to move towards a more concrete ideological system, Fascism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
mass_politics;Mass Politics;Mass Politics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mass_politics_desc;Mass Politics;Mass Politics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_doctrine_of_fascism;The Doctrine Of Fascism;The Doctrine Of Fascism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_doctrine_of_fascism_desc;The spread of revolutionary Communism in the early twentieth century as a potential alternative model to Liberal Capitalism as the basis of the organization of society would lead to the development of new models on the political Right that sought to offer a third alternative that would replace the weaknesses inherent in Liberal Capitalist systems without promoting a social revolution that would dispossess the power and status of the upper and middle classes. By the early 1920s such a model would crystallize in the evolution of Fascism. Although less rigorously defined in terms of ideological content than Communism, Fascism at its base called for the reorganization of The State for the benefit of The Nation as a whole, so that all who are definted as members of the national community, regardless of socioeconomic class, receive the benefits of modern industrial society. This would be achieved by subsuming the desires and concerns of the individual to the needs of the Nation under the leadership of a single party that would govern according to the needs of the Nation as a whole and prepare the Nation to compete successfully with other nations for power and influence in the world. Fully elaborated in the writings of the Italian Giovanni Gentile in the early 1930s, Fascism as an alternative to both Liberal Capitalism and Communism would grow rapidly in the early twentieth century.;The spread of revolutionary Communism in the early twentieth century as a potential alternative model to Liberal Capitalism as the basis of the organization of society would lead to the development of new models on the political Right that sought to offer a third alternative that would replace the weaknesses inherent in Liberal Capitalist systems without promoting a social revolution that would dispossess the power and status of the upper and middle classes. By the early 1920s such a model would crystallize in the evolution of Fascism. Although less rigorously defined in terms of ideological content than Communism, Fascism at its base called for the reorganization of The State for the benefit of The Nation as a whole, so that all who are definted as members of the national community, regardless of socioeconomic class, receive the benefits of modern industrial society. This would be achieved by subsuming the desires and concerns of the individual to the needs of the Nation under the leadership of a single party that would govern according to the needs of the Nation as a whole and prepare the Nation to compete successfully with other nations for power and influence in the world. Fully elaborated in the writings of the Italian Giovanni Gentile in the early 1930s, Fascism as an alternative to both Liberal Capitalism and Communism would grow rapidly in the early twentieth century.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
paramilitary_groups;Paramilitary Groups;Paramilitary Groups;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
paramilitary_groups_desc;As a result of the huge manpower requirements of militaries in an age of industrial warfare, the restoration of peace often resulted in the creation of large numbers of veterans, many of whom found it difficult to adjust to a return to civilian life and who possessed basic military training that could be put to use if needed. With the growth of revolutionary movements on the Left and particularly on the Right, the potential use of disgruntled military veterans for the purpose of challenging the actions and influence of ideological opponents grew rapidly. Their existence and growth in times of political, social and economic upheaval proved challenging to the ability of many States to maintain law and order, and the activities of such paramilitaries were often cited by those opposed to Liberal Capitalism of the inherent weakness of democracy in the face of revolutionary challenges that threatened the social order;As a result of the huge manpower requirements of militaries in an age of industrial warfare, the restoration of peace often resulted in the creation of large numbers of veterans, many of whom found it difficult to adjust to a return to civilian life and who possessed basic military training that could be put to use if needed. With the growth of revolutionary movements on the Left and particularly on the Right, the potential use of disgruntled military veterans for the purpose of challenging the actions and influence of ideological opponents grew rapidly. Their existence and growth in times of political, social and economic upheaval proved challenging to the ability of many States to maintain law and order, and the activities of such paramilitaries were often cited by those opposed to Liberal Capitalism of the inherent weakness of democracy in the face of revolutionary challenges that threatened the social order;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
the_police_state;The Police State;The Police State;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_police_state_desc;Why is it you only see a policeman when you don't need one?;Why is it you only see a policeman when you don't need one?;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
psychology;Psychology;Psychology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
psychology_desc;This area covers the developments in psychology. It changed not only mankinds view of itself but also created systematic knowledge in behaviour especially on a macrolevel.;This area covers the developments in psychology. It changed not only mankinds view of itself but also created systematic knowledge in behaviour especially on a macrolevel.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
introspectionism;Introspectionism;Introspectionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
introspectionism_desc;Introspectionism;Introspectionism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
associationism;Associationism;Associationism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
associationism_desc;Associationism;Associationism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
phenomenalism;Phenomenalism;Phenomenalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
phenomenalism_desc;Phenomenalism;Phenomenalism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
experimental_psychology;Experimental Psychology;Experimental Psychology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
experimental_psychology_desc;Experimental Psychology;Experimental Psychology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
psychoanalysis;Psychoanalysis;Psychoanalysis;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
psychoanalysis_desc;Psychoanalysis;Psychoanalysis;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
behaviorism;Behaviorism;Behaviorism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
behaviorism_desc;Behaviorism;Behaviorism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mass_advertising;Mass Advertising;Mass Advertising;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
mass_advertising_desc;The rapid spread of basic functional literacy in industrial societies combined with the improvements in communication technologies to lay the basis for the development of new approaches to the promotion of creating demand for the rapidly increasing output of goods by increasingly efficient industrial systems. Drawing upon increased understanding of the nature of human compulsions shaped by the environment around them, advertisers would also learn lessons gained by States in their propaganda efforts during periods of war to rally the population to support the goals of the nation in its conflict. The result would be a rapid expansion of the use of simple, direct means of advertising to popularize new products and increase the appeal and demand for established products would become permanent features of popular culture as the twentieth century evolved, and would eventually come to impact other realms of public life, including politics;The rapid spread of basic functional literacy in industrial societies combined with the improvements in communication technologies to lay the basis for the development of new approaches to the promotion of creating demand for the rapidly increasing output of goods by increasingly efficient industrial systems. Drawing upon increased understanding of the nature of human compulsions shaped by the environment around them, advertisers would also learn lessons gained by States in their propaganda efforts during periods of war to rally the population to support the goals of the nation in its conflict. The result would be a rapid expansion of the use of simple, direct means of advertising to popularize new products and increase the appeal and demand for established products would become permanent features of popular culture as the twentieth century evolved, and would eventually come to impact other realms of public life, including politics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
national_radio_networks;National Radio Networks;National Radio Networks;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
national_radio_networks_desc;As the twentieth century evolved the role of wireless communication pioneered in the development of radio by Guglielmo Marconi would rapidly increase as technological changes improved the clarity and quality of radio transmissions. By the early 1920s the improvements would result in the development of a whole new medium of information exchange as radio frequencies could be used to transmit content deisnged to entertain, inform, or convince. Realizing the potential power of this new medium, states began to regulate the assigning of radio frequencies, with some establishing national monopolies while others allowed for the development of commercial broadcasting networks. By the early 1930s the radio set would become one of the most desired consumer goods, and its potential use to not only entertain but develop and shape public opinion would soon be seized upon by politicians and those who aspired to political power;As the twentieth century evolved the role of wireless communication pioneered in the development of radio by Guglielmo Marconi would rapidly increase as technological changes improved the clarity and quality of radio transmissions. By the early 1920s the improvements would result in the development of a whole new medium of information exchange as radio frequencies could be used to transmit content deisnged to entertain, inform, or convince. Realizing the potential power of this new medium, states began to regulate the assigning of radio frequencies, with some establishing national monopolies while others allowed for the development of commercial broadcasting networks. By the early 1930s the radio set would become one of the most desired consumer goods, and its potential use to not only entertain but develop and shape public opinion would soon be seized upon by politicians and those who aspired to political power;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
the_talkies;The Talkies;The Talkies;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
the_talkies_desc;The development of the cinema in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century would result in the creation of a new mass cultural activity that would soon become one of the hallmarks of the era. The power and influence of the cinema would be further enhanced when in the 1920s technological improvements allowed for the ability of sounds to be synchronized with the moving images so that not just the visual representation of a scene could be represented on screen, but its aural component as well. 典he Jazz Singer,・released in the United States in 1927, was the first sound motion picture, and within half a decade the silent movie had become a relic of the past, and a new, powerful medium had entered the public sphere, forever changing not only popular culture, but the nature of politics and international relations as well;The development of the cinema in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century would result in the creation of a new mass cultural activity that would soon become one of the hallmarks of the era. The power and influence of the cinema would be further enhanced when in the 1920s technological improvements allowed for the ability of sounds to be synchronized with the moving images so that not just the visual representation of a scene could be represented on screen, but its aural component as well. 典he Jazz Singer,・released in the United States in 1927, was the first sound motion picture, and within half a decade the silent movie had become a relic of the past, and a new, powerful medium had entered the public sphere, forever changing not only popular culture, but the nature of politics and international relations as well;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
tech_power;Power;Power;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
tech_power_desc;This area involves the development of power and engines. Note that each application within this area is the prerequisite for each other application at the same level within the technology branch of Industry.;This area involves the development of power and engines. Note that each application within this area is the prerequisite for each other application at the same level within the technology branch of Industry.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
water_wheel_power;Water-wheel Power;Water-wheel Power;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
water_wheel_power_desc;Water-wheel Power;Water-wheel Power;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
practical_steam_engine;Practical Steam Engine;Practical Steam Engine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
practical_steam_engine_desc;Practical Steam Engine;Practical Steam Engine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
high_n_low_pressure_steam_engines;High & Low Pressure Steam Engines;High & Low Pressure Steam Engines;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
high_n_low_pressure_steam_engines_desc;High & Low Pressure Steam Engines;High & Low Pressure Steam Engines;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
steam_turbine;Steam Turbine;Steam Turbine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
steam_turbine_desc;Steam Turbine;Steam Turbine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
combustion_engine;Combustion Engine;Combustion Engine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
combustion_engine_desc;Combustion Engine;Combustion Engine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
daimlers_automobile;Daimler's Automobile;Daimler's Automobile;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
daimlers_automobile_desc;This was the first commercial automobile. It was reliable, but slow, and it took a decade before they became usual even among high class people.;This was the first commercial automobile. It was reliable, but slow, and it took a decade before they became usual even among high class people.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
wright_n_langleys_aeroplanes;Wright & Langley's Aeroplanes;Wright & Langley's Aeroplanes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
wright_n_langleys_aeroplanes_desc;This was the first durable aircraft. It was extremely expensive and it would take a decade before a commercial version was produced and then only the ultrarich could afford it.;This was the first durable aircraft. It was extremely expensive and it would take a decade before a commercial version was produced and then only the ultrarich could afford it.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
electrical_power_generation;Electrical Power Generation;Electrical Power Generation;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,;
electrical_power_generation_desc;Electrical Power Generation;Electrical Power Generation;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,;
direct_current;Direct Current;Direct Current;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
direct_current_desc;The first common way to transmit electricity was direct current or DC, where the electrons flow in only one direction. Batteries produce direct current and it is commonly used in applications requiring low voltages. High voltage direct current is used to transmit power to long distances, especially when using underwater cables and to run trains. Thomas Alva Edison sponsored direct current, but lost the battle of standards to Nikola Tesla and his alternating current.;The first common way to transmit electricity was direct current or DC, where the electrons flow in only one direction. Batteries produce direct current and it is commonly used in applications requiring low voltages. High voltage direct current is used to transmit power to long distances, especially when using underwater cables and to run trains. Thomas Alva Edison sponsored direct current, but lost the battle of standards to Nikola Tesla and his alternating current.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
alternating_current;Alternating Current;Alternating Current;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
alternating_current_desc;In alternating current or AC systems electrons flow in both directions in wave patterns. After a fierce competition with direct current, alternating current got dominance for most domestic and industrial applications. One of the first applications were the electric chairs, which didn't help in convincing that alternating current wasn't more dangerous than direct current.;In alternating current or AC systems electrons flow in both directions in wave patterns. After a fierce competition with direct current, alternating current got dominance for most domestic and industrial applications. One of the first applications were the electric chairs, which didn't help in convincing that alternating current wasn't more dangerous than direct current.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
polyphase_system;Polyphase System;Polyphase System;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,;
polyphase_system_desc;The polyphase system is a way to help transmit alternating current efficiently. In it two or more phases travel simultaneously. In industrial applications three waves is the standards, although at first two phases were used. The invention of the polyphase system by Nikola Tesla meant the final loss for Thomas Alva Edison and his direct current.;The polyphase system is a way to help transmit alternating current efficiently. In it two or more phases travel simultaneously. In industrial applications three waves is the standards, although at first two phases were used. The invention of the polyphase system by Nikola Tesla meant the final loss for Thomas Alva Edison and his direct current.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
mechanization;Mechanization;Mechanization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
mechanization_desc;This area involves the development of mechanizations in the factories of your country. It concerns both machinery, tools and working procedures.;This area involves the development of mechanizations in the factories of your country. It concerns both machinery, tools and working procedures.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
publishing_industry;Publishing Industry;Publishing Industry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
publishing_industry_desc;Publishing Industry;Publishing Industry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
mechanical_production;Mechanical Production;Mechanical Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
mechanical_production_desc;Mechanical Production;Mechanical Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
sharp_n_roberts_power_loom;Sharp & Robert's Power Loom;Sharp & Robert's Power Loom;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
sharp_n_roberts_power_loom_desc;This was one of the first mechanized power looms and it revolutionized production. From now on the textile industry was no longer considered a handicraft.;This was one of the first mechanized power looms and it revolutionized production. From now on the textile industry was no longer considered a handicraft.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
jacquard_power_loom;Jacquard Power Loom;Jacquard Power Loom;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
jacquard_power_loom_desc;This was a mechanized power loom that produced fabric with a much higher quality than before.;This was a mechanized power loom that produced fabric with a much higher quality than before.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
northrop_power_loom;Northrop Power Loom;Northrop Power Loom;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
northrop_power_loom_desc;This was a mechanized power loom that produced fabric with a much higher quality than before. But also the one and the same machine could produce several different types of fabric which made it extremely flexible.;This was a mechanized power loom that produced fabric with a much higher quality than before. But also the one and the same machine could produce several different types of fabric which made it extremely flexible.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
mechanical_saw;Mechanical Saw;Mechanical Saw;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
mechanical_saw_desc;This was a power-driven saw that vastly increased the rate of cut down timber.;This was a power-driven saw that vastly increased the rate of cut down timber.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
mechanical_precision_saw;Mechanical Precision Saw;Mechanical Precision Saw;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
mechanical_precision_saw_desc;When the timber had been cut down this saw was an important vehicle to make planks with an ever increasing speed.;When the timber had been cut down this saw was an important vehicle to make planks with an ever increasing speed.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
hussey_n_mccormicks_reaping_machine;Hussey & McCormicks Reaping machine;Hussey & McCormicks Reaping machine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
hussey_n_mccormicks_reaping_machine_desc;This was the first step to mechanize farming which increased the agricultural output enormously.;This was the first step to mechanize farming which increased the agricultural output enormously.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
pitts_threshing_machine;Pitts Threshing machine;Pitts Threshing machine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
pitts_threshing_machine_desc;This farming machine made agriculture less labour intensive and increased the output.;This farming machine made agriculture less labour intensive and increased the output.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
mechanized_slaughtering_block;Mechanized Slaughtering-block;Mechanized Slaughtering-block;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,;
mechanized_slaughtering_block_desc;By mechanizing the procedure inside the slaughterhouse the handling was sped up and output increased.;By mechanizing the procedure inside the slaughterhouse the handling was sped up and output increased.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
interchangeable_parts;Interchangeable Parts;Interchangeable Parts;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
interchangeable_parts_desc;Interchangeable Parts;Interchangeable Parts;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
precision_work;Precision Work;Precision Work;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
precision_work_desc;Precision Work meant producing very small part by a new method. This parts could now be used in very fine mechanisms that increased the complexity in production.;Precision Work meant producing very small part by a new method. This parts could now be used in very fine mechanisms that increased the complexity in production.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
machine_tools;Machine Tools;Machine Tools;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
machine_tools_desc;By constructing special machines that produced standardized machine tools the exchangability in industry was vastly improved.;By constructing special machines that produced standardized machine tools the exchangability in industry was vastly improved.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
whitney_n_colts_standardized_small_arms;Whitney & Colt's Standardized Small Arms;Whitney & Colt's Standardized Small Arms;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
whitney_n_colts_standardized_small_arms_desc;By constructing special machines that produced standardized parts Small Arms became cheaper and simpler to construct and repair.;By constructing special machines that produced standardized parts Small Arms became cheaper and simpler to construct and repair.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
food_packing_system;Food Packing System;Food Packing System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
food_packing_system_desc;By introducing new methods for packing food the export of food stuff peaked in the industrialized world enabling people to live in the crowded cities.;By introducing new methods for packing food the export of food stuff peaked in the industrialized world enabling people to live in the crowded cities.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
integral_distillery_process;Integral Distillery Process;Integral Distillery Process;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
integral_distillery_process_desc;Greater knowledge of the fermentation process, thermodynamical coherences during boiling and distilling and the introduction of machinery into the traditional ways of producing fermented beverages allowed the wineries, breweries and distilleries to grow beyond family enterprises and thus established a new sector of industry.;Greater knowledge of the fermentation process, thermodynamical coherences during boiling and distilling and the introduction of machinery into the traditional ways of producing fermented beverages allowed the wineries, breweries and distilleries to grow beyond family enterprises and thus established a new sector of industry.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
jiggs;Jiggs;Jiggs;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
jiggs_desc;The introduction of jiggs vastly increased the efficiency of all machines, which in its turn helped increase most industrial production.;The introduction of jiggs vastly increased the efficiency of all machines, which in its turn helped increase most industrial production.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
semi_automatization;Semi-Automatization;Semi-Automatization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
semi_automatization_desc;Semi-Automatization;Semi-Automatization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
electric_machinery;Electric Machinery;Electric Machinery;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
electric_machinery_desc;By being able to electrify certain parts of the machinery at an industrial plant more complicated work could be done. This also meant that the production became less labour intensive.;By being able to electrify certain parts of the machinery at an industrial plant more complicated work could be done. This also meant that the production became less labour intensive.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
oil_pumping_machinery;Oil Pumping Machinery;Oil Pumping Machinery;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
oil_pumping_machinery_desc;By using new discouverie in hydraulics and pumping techniques new machinery was developed that could pump the black gold up to the surface.;By using new discouverie in hydraulics and pumping techniques new machinery was developed that could pump the black gold up to the surface.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
drying_techniques;Drying Techniques;Drying Techniques;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
drying_techniques_desc;By drying food their durability increased tenfold and food as a commodity became easier to sell.;By drying food their durability increased tenfold and food as a commodity became easier to sell.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
assembly_line;Assembly Line;Assembly Line;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
assembly_line_desc;Assembly Line;Assembly Line;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
fordism;Fordism;Fordism;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
fordism_desc;Fordism was a technique of massproduction. The product moved on a moving line and workers stood by it ready to attach the part they was specialized in attaching. The Industrial Mode of production was revolutionized.;Fordism was a technique of massproduction. The product moved on a moving line and workers stood by it ready to attach the part they was specialized in attaching. The Industrial Mode of production was revolutionized.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
massproduced_rail;Massproduced Rail;Massproduced Rail;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
massproduced_rail_desc;As an applied combination of fordism and smelting technique rail could be massproduced and thus the railroad net could be expanded at a much lower price.;As an applied combination of fordism and smelting technique rail could be massproduced and thus the railroad net could be expanded at a much lower price.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
industrialized_armament_industry;Industrialized Armament Industry;Industrialized Armament Industry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
industrialized_armament_industry_desc;Soon the armament industry, forced onwards by a fierce international competition, industrialized and implemented every efficiency improving measure that was available to increase sales.;Soon the armament industry, forced onwards by a fierce international competition, industrialized and implemented every efficiency improving measure that was available to increase sales.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
refrigerator_technology;Refrigerator Technology;Refrigerator Technology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
refrigerator_technology_desc;The introduction of refrigerator technology revolutionized food industry, but also distillery industry which had always been limited by temperature.;The introduction of refrigerator technology revolutionized food industry, but also distillery industry which had always been limited by temperature.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
shift_work;Shift Work;Shift Work;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
shift_work_desc;Shift Work;Shift Work;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
metallurgy;Metallurgy;Metallurgy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
metallurgy_desc;This area involves the development and refinement of metal and minerals. Different techniques of cleaning, roasting, grinding and smelting decreased the losses of resources that had often occured earlier.;This area involves the development and refinement of metal and minerals. Different techniques of cleaning, roasting, grinding and smelting decreased the losses of resources that had often occured earlier.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
mechanized_mining;Mechanized Mining;Mechanized Mining;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
mechanized_mining_desc;Mechanized Mining;Mechanized Mining;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
ammunition_production;Ammunition Production;Ammunition Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
REMOVE_ammunition_production_desc;TODO;TODO;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
small_arms_production;Small Arms Production;Small Arms Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
REMOVE_small_arms_production_desc;TODO;TODO;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
explosives_production;Explosives Production;Explosives Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
REMOVE_explosives_production_desc;TODO;TODO;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
artillery_production;Artillery Production;Artillery Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
REMOVE_artillery_production_desc;TODO;TODO;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
clean_coal;Clean Coal;Clean Coal;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,;
clean_coal_desc;Clean Coal;Clean Coal;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,;
pit_coal;Pit Coal;Pit Coal;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
pit_coal_desc;Pit Coal was much more high graded than Brown Coal and at this point new techniques made refining Pit Coal much simpler.;Pit Coal was much more high graded than Brown Coal and at this point new techniques made refining Pit Coal much simpler.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
coke;Coke;Coke;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,
coke_desc;Coke was coal that had been enriched by a special process. By treating the coal more energy could be turned into power and it could also clean iron and other metals more effectively.;Coke was coal that had been enriched by a special process. By treating the coal more energy could be turned into power and it could also clean iron and other metals more effectively.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
cheap_iron;Cheap Iron;Cheap Iron;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
cheap_iron_desc;Cheap Iron;Cheap Iron;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
advanced_ore_roasting_processes;Advanced Ore Roasting Processes;Advanced Ore Roasting Processes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
advanced_ore_roasting_processes_desc;This process cleaned the ore from by products that tended to defect the latter finished metal. By using this technique the finished metal would have higher quality, durability and because of the large quanity turnover lower price.;This process cleaned the ore from by products that tended to defect the latter finished metal. By using this technique the finished metal would have higher quality, durability and because of the large quanity turnover lower price.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
advanced_ore_grinding_processes;Advanced Ore Grinding Processes;Advanced Ore Grinding Processes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
advanced_ore_grinding_processes_desc;This process cleaned the ore from by products that tended to defect the latter finished metal. By using this technique the finished metal would have higher quality, durability and because of the large quanity turnover lower price.;This process cleaned the ore from by products that tended to defect the latter finished metal. By using this technique the finished metal would have higher quality, durability and because of the large quanity turnover lower price.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
advanced_ore_smelting_processes;Advanced Ore Smelting Processes;Advanced Ore Smelting Processes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
advanced_ore_smelting_processes_desc;This process cleaned the ore from by products that tended to defect the latter finished metal. By using this technique the finished metal would have higher quality, durability and because of the large quanity turnover lower price.;This process cleaned the ore from by products that tended to defect the latter finished metal. By using this technique the finished metal would have higher quality, durability and because of the large quanity turnover lower price.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
bessemer_steel;Bessemer Steel;Bessemer Steel;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
bessemer_steel_desc;This method not only clean iron during the process of making it into steel, but it also allowed for the use of iron that earlier had been unusable because its low grade.;This method not only clean iron during the process of making it into steel, but it also allowed for the use of iron that earlier had been unusable because its low grade.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
cheap_steel;Cheap Steel;Cheap Steel;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
cheap_steel_desc;Cheap Steel;Cheap Steel;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
martin_steel;Martin Steel;Martin Steel;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
martin_steel_desc;This method not only clean iron during the process of making it into steel, but it also allowed for the use of iron that earlier had been unusable because its low grade.;This method not only clean iron during the process of making it into steel, but it also allowed for the use of iron that earlier had been unusable because its low grade.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
thomas_steel;Thomas Steel;Thomas Steel;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
thomas_steel_desc;This method not only clean iron during the process of making it into steel, but it also allowed for the use of iron that earlier had been unusable because its low grade.;This method not only clean iron during the process of making it into steel, but it also allowed for the use of iron that earlier had been unusable because its low grade.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
advanced_metallurgy;Advanced Metallurgy;Advanced Metallurgy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
advanced_metallurgy_desc;Advanced Metallurgy;Advanced Metallurgy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
electric_rolling_techniques;Electric Rolling Techniques;Electric Rolling Techniques;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
electric_rolling_techniques_desc;This was a new technique to turn steel bars into steel plates. The time and labor saved by using the machines instead of a number of smiths with hammers was considerable.;This was a new technique to turn steel bars into steel plates. The time and labor saved by using the machines instead of a number of smiths with hammers was considerable.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
steel_alloys;Steel Alloys;Steel Alloys;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
steel_alloys_desc;This meant adding small amounts of other metals to the iron during the steel-making process. The effect was that it was now possible to tailor the attributs of the metal and make different kind of steel for different kinds of uses.;This meant adding small amounts of other metals to the iron during the steel-making process. The effect was that it was now possible to tailor the attributs of the metal and make different kind of steel for different kinds of uses.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
electric_furnace;Electric Furnace;Electric Furnace;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
electric_furnace_desc;Electric Furnace;Electric Furnace;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
stainless_steel;Stainless Steel;Stainless Steel;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
stainless_steel_desc;The new metals discovered by using electric furnace included chromium. Chromium mixed in steel forms a protective layer of chromium oxide on the surface of the steel protecting it from corrosion. A lot more scratching was required to enable rusting compared to painted normal steel. Stainless steel was soon used in most tools, pieces of equipment and weaponry. ;The new metals discovered by using electric furnace included chromium. Chromium mixed in steel forms a protective layer of chromium oxide on the surface of the steel protecting it from corrosion. A lot more scratching was required to enable rusting compared to painted normal steel. Stainless steel was soon used in most tools, pieces of equipment and weaponry. ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
tech_infrastructure;Infrastructure;Infrastructure;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
tech_infrastructure_desc;This area involves the development of railroad from early 19th century horse-and-wagon to the integral railsystems of the early 1920s.;This area involves the development of railroad from early 19th century horse-and-wagon to the integral railsystems of the early 1920s.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,
experimental_railroad;Experimental Railroad;Experimental Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
experimental_railroad_desc;Experimental Railroad;Experimental Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
early_railroad;Early Railroad;Early Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
early_railroad_desc;Early Railroad;Early Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,
iron_railroad;Iron Railroad;Iron Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
iron_railroad_desc;Iron Railroad;Iron Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
steel_railroad;Steel Railroad;Steel Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
steel_railroad_desc;Steel Railroad;Steel Railroad;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
integral_rail_system;Integral Rail System;Integral Rail System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
integral_rail_system_desc;Integral Rail System;Integral Rail System;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
limited_access_roads;Limited-Access Roads;Limited-Access Roads;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,;
limited_access_roads_desc;Limited-Access Roads;Limited-Access Roads;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,;
chemistry_and_electricity;Chemistry and Electricity;Chemistry and Electricity;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,;
chemistry_and_electricity_desc;This area involves the development of chemistry and electricity and all its spinoffs.;This area involves the development of chemistry and electricity and all its spinoffs.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
basic_chemistry;Basic Chemistry;Basic Chemistry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
basic_chemistry_desc;Basic Chemistry;Basic Chemistry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
medicine;Medicine;Medicine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
medicine_desc;Medicine;Medicine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
combat_medicine;Combat Medicine;Combat Medicine;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,
combat_medicine_desc;At this point the armies and navies of the world had acknowledged the need not only for a medical corps within their organizations, but also that the illness' and wounds delivered in combat and fronline duty needed specialization.;At this point the armies and navies of the world had acknowledged the need not only for a medical corps within their organizations, but also that the illness' and wounds delivered in combat and fronline duty needed specialization.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
aerial_bacteria_and_antiseptic_principle;Aerial Bacteria and Antiseptic Principle;Aerial Bacteria and Antiseptic Principle;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
aerial_bacteria_and_antiseptic_principle_desc;The discouvery of aerial bacteria and the development of antiseptics revolutionized life for humanity. No longer open wounds meant apputation or death, but infections even fevers could be cured with medicin.;The discouvery of aerial bacteria and the development of antiseptics revolutionized life for humanity. No longer open wounds meant apputation or death, but infections even fevers could be cured with medicin.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
vaccination;Vaccination;Vaccination;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
vaccination_desc;This method meant that one could immunizate animals and humane from illnesses that flourished. This made life easier for man and cattletending more profitable.;This method meant that one could immunizate animals and humane from illnesses that flourished. This made life easier for man and cattletending more profitable.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
chemotherapy;Chemotherapy;Chemotherapy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
chemotherapy_desc;Chemotherapy describes methods of using natural or artificial lowmolecular substances with selectively harming effects on disease-causing agents by blocking metabolism.;Chemotherapy describes methods of using natural or artificial lowmolecular substances with selectively harming effects on disease-causing agents by blocking metabolism.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
genetics:_heredity;Genetics: Heredity;Genetics: Heredity;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
genetics:_heredity_desc;Heredity Genetics were a major step towards the understanding of life itself. Gregor Mendel (1822-84) assumed that every trait an organism contains is written down in some material factors and are transferred during the process of reproduction. In experiments with his pea plants he could proove his thesis.;Heredity Genetics were a major step towards the understanding of life itself. Gregor Mendel (1822-84) assumed that every trait an organism contains is written down in some material factors and are transferred during the process of reproduction. In experiments with his pea plants he could proove his thesis.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
clinical_thermometers_and_binaural_stethoscopes;Clinical Thermometers and Binaural Stethoscopes;Clinical Thermometers and Binaural Stethoscopes;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
clinical_thermometers_and_binaural_stethoscopes_desc;This new medical equipment simplified the work of doctors and improved the effect of their work considerably.;This new medical equipment simplified the work of doctors and improved the effect of their work considerably.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
prophylaxis_against_malaria;Prophylaxis against Malaria;Prophylaxis against Malaria;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
prophylaxis_against_malaria_desc;This medicament gave the patient a protection against the disease gotten from the Malaria mosquito which was very common in the tropics.;This medicament gave the patient a protection against the disease gotten from the Malaria mosquito which was very common in the tropics.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
pressure_chambers_for_thorax_surgery;Pressure Chambers for Thorax Surgery;Pressure Chambers for Thorax Surgery;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
pressure_chambers_for_thorax_surgery_desc;When doing thorax surgury a big problem had been the oxygen in the blood stream, but doing them in a pressure chamber the risk of hazard diminished considerably.;When doing thorax surgury a big problem had been the oxygen in the blood stream, but doing them in a pressure chamber the risk of hazard diminished considerably.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
inorganic_chemistry;Inorganic Chemistry;Inorganic Chemistry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
inorganic_chemistry_desc;Inorganic Chemistry;Inorganic Chemistry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
artificial_fertilizers;Artificial Fertilizers;Artificial Fertilizers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
artificial_fertilizers_desc;This was the technique of making fertilizers in a laboratory instead on relying on byproducts from animals.;This was the technique of making fertilizers in a laboratory instead on relying on byproducts from animals.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
nitroglycerin;Nitroglycerin;Nitroglycerin;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
nitroglycerin_desc;This was the technique of producing reliable explosives out of nitrates. This often meant using fertilizers as base material.;This was the technique of producing reliable explosives out of nitrates. This often meant using fertilizers as base material.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,
chemical_wood_pulp_process;Chemical Wood Pulp Process;Chemical Wood Pulp Process;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
chemical_wood_pulp_process_desc;Wood is composed of cellulose fibres that are cemented together with a substance called lignin. To transform wood into pulp, the fibres must by separated, either by a mechanical or chemical process. This technology helped to saturate the ever growing hunger for paper of the 19th century printing industry.;Wood is composed of cellulose fibres that are cemented together with a substance called lignin. To transform wood into pulp, the fibres must by separated, either by a mechanical or chemical process. This technology helped to saturate the ever growing hunger for paper of the 19th century printing industry.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
rubber_vulcanization;Rubber Vulcanization;Rubber Vulcanization;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
rubber_vulcanization_desc;This was a process to make industrial rubber out of the rubber sourcematerial. This enabled massproduction of this strategic material and thus gave an enormously increased output.;This was a process to make industrial rubber out of the rubber sourcematerial. This enabled massproduction of this strategic material and thus gave an enormously increased output.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
catalytic_fermentative_process;Catalytic Fermentative Process;Catalytic Fermentative Process;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
catalytic_fermentative_process_desc;This marked the beginning of a new field of science and technology - biotechnology. Connstein and Norman combined fermentative processes (enzymatic hydrolization) with a thermodynamic process (catalytic hydrogenation). One result of this combination was margarine, which greatly improved the supply of the population with essential unsaturated fatty acids.;This marked the beginning of a new field of science and technology - biotechnology. Connstein and Norman combined fermentative processes (enzymatic hydrolization) with a thermodynamic process (catalytic hydrogenation). One result of this combination was margarine, which greatly improved the supply of the population with essential unsaturated fatty acids.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
organic_chemistry;Organic Chemistry;Organic Chemistry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
organic_chemistry_desc;Organic Chemistry;Organic Chemistry;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
synthetic_dye;Synthetic Dye;Synthetic Dye;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
synthetic_dye_desc;This incorporated a chemical process that created different types of dye in a synthetic way. It revolutionized the colouring of fabric and terminated the production of agricultural dye which became to expensive to produce.;This incorporated a chemical process that created different types of dye in a synthetic way. It revolutionized the colouring of fabric and terminated the production of agricultural dye which became to expensive to produce.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
gaslights;Gaslights;Gaslights;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
gaslights_desc;The introduction of gaslights meant that predefined areas like small rooms or big factory floors could be enlightened. This meant that people were no longer limited by sunrise and sunset.;The introduction of gaslights meant that predefined areas like small rooms or big factory floors could be enlightened. This meant that people were no longer limited by sunrise and sunset.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,
carbon_soil_enrichment;Carbon Soil Enrichment;Carbon Soil Enrichment;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
carbon_soil_enrichment_desc;By enriching the soil with carbons it yielded more crops and need to lay for shorter times.;By enriching the soil with carbons it yielded more crops and need to lay for shorter times.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
cracking;Cracking;Cracking;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
cracking_desc;This chemical process involved seperating oil into different layers of different enegy levels. On of these layers held gasoline which proved a superb fuel for combustion engines.;This chemical process involved seperating oil into different layers of different enegy levels. On of these layers held gasoline which proved a superb fuel for combustion engines.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
electricity;Electricity;Electricity;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;
electricity_desc;Electricity;Electricity;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;
x_rays;X-Rays;X-Rays;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
x_rays_desc;With X-rays it was now possible to perfectly view any shattered bones within a body without cutting it up. This of course made operations and rehabilitation much easier.;With X-rays it was now possible to perfectly view any shattered bones within a body without cutting it up. This of course made operations and rehabilitation much easier.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
edison_light_bulb;Edison Light Bulb;Edison Light Bulb;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
edison_light_bulb_desc;The introduction of the light bulb meant that predefined areas like small rooms or big factory floors could be enlightened. This meant that people were no longer limited by sunrise and sunset.;The introduction of the light bulb meant that predefined areas like small rooms or big factory floors could be enlightened. This meant that people were no longer limited by sunrise and sunset.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bell_n_greys_telephones;Bell & Grey's Telephones;Bell & Grey's Telephones;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
bell_n_greys_telephones_desc;Through the invention of the telephone every household could afford communicating directly with relatives and other. It also revolutionized communication between firms and organizations.;Through the invention of the telephone every household could afford communicating directly with relatives and other. It also revolutionized communication between firms and organizations.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
electrical_lighting;Electrical Lighting;Electrical Lighting;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
electrical_lighting_desc;The introduction of electric lighting meant that predefined areas like small rooms or big factory floors could be enlightened. This meant that people were no longer limited by sunrise and sunset.;The introduction of electric lighting meant that predefined areas like small rooms or big factory floors could be enlightened. This meant that people were no longer limited by sunrise and sunset.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,
tractors;Tractors;Tractors;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
tractors_desc;When automobiles had started to gain popularity on the roads, it did not take long for more innovative engineers to find a way to begin replacing horses in the fields. Early experiments with steam-powered farm machinery had failed, but lighter combustion engines revolutionised farm work. The first pioneers J.I.Case, H.Ford and J.Deere, would have been thrilled to see tractors with their names stamped on them a century after their first prototypes.;When automobiles had started to gain popularity on the roads, it did not take long for more innovative engineers to find a way to begin replacing horses in the fields. Early experiments with steam-powered farm machinery had failed, but lighter combustion engines revolutionised farm work. The first pioneers J.I.Case, H.Ford and J.Deere, would have been thrilled to see tractors with their names stamped on them a century after their first prototypes.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
synthetic_polymers;Synthetic Polymers;Synthetic Polymers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
synthetic_polymers_desc;Synthetic Polymers;Synthetic Polymers;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
rayon;Rayon;Rayon;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
rayon_desc;The first of the artificial fibers to be developed in commercial qualities, its production is derived from the liquefaction of wood pulp, which cools to produce a fiber with the tactile feel of silk, and was known as 努ood silk・until the name rayon was adopted for the fiber in the 1920s. With disruptions in international trade caused by war between industrial nations, materials such as rayon became important susbititued to maintain production of textiles for military and consumer consumption;The first of the artificial fibers to be developed in commercial qualities, its production is derived from the liquefaction of wood pulp, which cools to produce a fiber with the tactile feel of silk, and was known as 努ood silk・until the name rayon was adopted for the fiber in the 1920s. With disruptions in international trade caused by war between industrial nations, materials such as rayon became important susbititued to maintain production of textiles for military and consumer consumption;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
bakelite;Bakelite;Bakelite;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
bakelite_desc;The first plastic, bakelite was the invention of Belgium chemist Leo Hendrick Baekeland and quickly became an important product in the production of industrial and consumer goods beginning in the 1920s as a result of its durability and its fire-resistant properties. Inexpensive to produce, it would be the dominant plastic in the marketplace well into the 1950s;The first plastic, bakelite was the invention of Belgium chemist Leo Hendrick Baekeland and quickly became an important product in the production of industrial and consumer goods beginning in the 1920s as a result of its durability and its fire-resistant properties. Inexpensive to produce, it would be the dominant plastic in the marketplace well into the 1950s;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,
employ_from_tech;From technology: ;From technology: ;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,

##################################################;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,

# Building Names;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,

##################################################;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
steel_factory;Steel Factory;Steel Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
cement_factory;Cement Factory;Cement Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
glass_factory;Glass Factory;Glass Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
fuel_refinery;Fuel Refinery;Fuel Refinery;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
ammunition_factory;Ammunition Factory;Ammunition Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
small_arms_factory;Small arms Factory;Small arms Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,
artillery_factory;Artillery Factory;Artillery Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
barrel_factory;Barrel Factory;Barrel Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
fertilizer_factory;Fertilizer Factory;Fertilizer Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
explosives_factory;Explosives Factory;Explosives Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
dye_factory;Dye Factory;Dye Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
clipper_shipyard;Clipper Shipyard;Clipper Shipyard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
steamer_shipyard;Steamer Shipyard;Steamer Shipyard;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
machine_parts_factory;Machine Parts Factory;Machine Parts Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
automobile_factory;Automobile Factory;Automobile Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
aeroplane_factory;Aeroplane Factory;Aeroplane Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
electric_gear_factory;Electric Gear Factory;Electric Gear Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
telephone_factory;Telephone Factory;Telephone Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
radio_factory;Radio Factory;Radio Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
winery;Winery;Winery;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
liquor_distillery;Liquor Distillery;Liquor Distillery;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
canned_food_factory;Canned Food Factory;Canned Food Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
fabric_factory;Fabric Factory;Fabric Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
regular_clothes_factory;Regular Clothes Factory;Regular Clothes Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
luxury_clothes_factory;Luxury Clothes Factory;Luxury Clothes Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
lumber_mill;Lumber Mill;Lumber Mill;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
paper_mill;Paper Mill;Paper Mill;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
furniture_factory;Furniture Factory;Furniture Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
luxury_furniture_factory;Luxury Furniture Factory;Luxury Furniture Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
synthetic_oil_factory;Synthetic Oil Factory;Synthetic Oil Factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

##################################################;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

# Factory tech names;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

##################################################;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
RGO_INPUT_TECH;RGO input efficiency tech;RGO input efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
RGO_OUTPUT_TECH;RGO output efficiency tech;RGO output efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
RGO_THROUGHPUT_TECH;RGO throughput efficiency tech;RGO throughput efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
RGO_NONE_EFFECT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
FACTORY_INPUT_TECH;Factory input efficiency tech;Factory input efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
FACTORY_OUTPUT_TECH;Factory output efficiency tech;Factory output efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
FACTORY_THROUGHPUT_TECH;Factory throughput tech;Factory throughput tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
FACTORY_NONE_EFFECT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
ARTISAN_INPUT_TECH;Artisan input efficiency tech;Artisan input efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
ARTISAN_OUTPUT_TECH;Artisan output efficiency tech;Artisan output efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
ARTISAN_THROUGHPUT_TECH;Artisan throughput efficiency tech;Artisan throughput efficiency tech;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
ARTISAN_NONE_EFFECT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
NONE_TYPE_INPUT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
NONE_TYPE_OUTPUT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
NONE_TYPE_THROUGHPUT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
NONE_TYPE_NONE_EFFECT_TECH;;;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_MINE_OUTPUT;Mining output;Mining output;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_FARM_OUTPUT;Farming output;Farming output;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_OUTPUT;production output;production output;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_INPUT;production input;production input;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_THROUGHPUT;production throughput;production throughput;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
CHANGES_UNIT_APPEARANCE_TECH;Changes unit appearance;Changes unit appearance;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
PRESTIGE_MODIFIER_TECH;Prestige gain;Prestige gain;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
PERMANENT_PRESTIGE_TECH;Permanent prestige;Permanent prestige;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
COLONIAL_PRESTIGE_MODIFIER_TECH;Colonial prestige;Colonial prestige;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
SHARED_PRESTIGE_TECH;Shared prestige(current);Shared prestige(current);;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_POP_GROWTH;Pop Growth;Pop Growth;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REBEL_ORG_GAIN;Rebel organization gain;Rebel organization gain;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
DIPLOMATIC_POINTS_TECH;Diplomatic points;Diplomatic points;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_PLURALITY;Plurality;Plurality;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_FACTORY;Factory Cost;Factory Cost;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_MAX_LEVEL;max level;max level;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_DIPLOMATIC_INFLUENCE;Diplomatic Points Gain;Diplomatic Points Gain;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_GP_INFLUENCE;Diplomatic Influence;Diplomatic Influence;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
RGO_SIZE;RGO Size;RGO Size;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_ONCE_SETUP;When a major technology has been researched.;When a major technology has been researched.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_ONCE_HEADER;Major Technology Researched.;Major Technology Researched.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_ONCE_1;$TYPE$;$TYPE$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_2;$TITLE$, we have finished the research of $TYPE$ which will give us the following benefits.;$TITLE$, we have finished the research of $TYPE$ which will give us the following benefits.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,
TECH_ONCE_3;$EFFECT$;$EFFECT$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_4;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_5;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_6;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_LOG;Research of $TYPE$ finished.;Research of $TYPE$ finished.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_BTN1;OK;OK;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_BTN2;OK;OK;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_BTN3;Details;Details;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_ONCE_MAP;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_REPEAT_SETUP;When you have increased your technological ability.;When you have increased your technological ability.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_REPEAT_HEADER;Technology Improvement;Technology Improvement;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_REPEAT_1;$TYPE$ Advance!;$TYPE$ Advance!;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,
TECH_REPEAT_2;$TITLE$, we have improved our abilities in $TYPE$ to level $LEVEL$, giving us the following benefit.;$TITLE$, we have improved our abilities in $TYPE$ to level $LEVEL$, giving us the following benefit.;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_3;$EFFECT$;$EFFECT$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,
TECH_REPEAT_4;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_5;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_6;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_LOG;$TYPE$ increased to $LEVEL$;$TYPE$ increased to $LEVEL$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_BTN1;OK;OK;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_BTN2;OK;OK;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_BTN3;Details;Details;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECH_REPEAT_MAP;*;*;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
PRODUCTION;Production;Production;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
BUDGET;Budget;Budget;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TECHNOLOGY;Technology;Technology;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
POLITICS;Politics;Politics;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
POPULATION;Population;Population;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TRADE;Trade;Trade;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
DIPLOMACY;Diplomacy;Diplomacy;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
MILITARY;Military;Military;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_PRODUCTION_PRODUCED;Top produced:;Top produced:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_PRODUCTION_LOSING_MONEY;Losing money;Losing money;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_PRODUCTION_SHOULD_EXPAND;Factory at full capacity;Factory at full capacity;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_PRODUCTION_IS_SUBSIDIZING;Is subsidizing;Is subsidizing;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_PRODUCTION_CAN_OPEN;Can open factory;Can open factory;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_PRODUCTION_MOST_PROFITABLE;Most profitable factories:;Most profitable factories:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_BUDGET_INCOME;Income: $PARAM$;Income: $PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_BUDGET_EXPENSE;Expense: $PARAM$;Expense: $PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_BUDGET_DAILY_BALANCE;Daily balance: $PARAM$;Daily balance: $PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_BUDGET_FUNDS;ァY$FUNDS$ァW($INCOME$);ァY$FUNDS$ァW($INCOME$);;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TECH_CURRENT;$PARAM$;$PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TECH_NO_CURRENT;ァRNo research setァW;ァRNo research setァW;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TECH_LITERACY;Literacy:;Literacy:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_POLITICS_CAN_DO_REFORM;$PARAM$Reforms available;$PARAM$Reforms available;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_POLITICS_CAN_DO_DECISION;$PARAM$Decision available;$PARAM$Decision available;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_POPULATION_TOTAL;Population:;Population:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_POPULATION_AVG_MIL;Avg. Mil:;Avg. Mil:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_POPULATION_AVG_CON;Avg. Con:;Avg. Con:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TRADE_IMPORT;Top imported:;Top imported:;;;;;;;;;;;x;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TRADE_EXPORT;Top exported:;Top exported:;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TRADE_NEEDS;Needs: $PARAM$;Needs: $PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TRADE_TOP_SOLD;Top sold: $PARAM$;Top sold: $PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_TRADE_TOP_BOUGHT;Top bought: $PARAM$;Top bought: $PARAM$;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
TB_DIPLOMACY_ALLIES;Allies: ァY$PARAM$ァW;Allies: ァY$PARAM$ァW;;;;;;;;;;;;x;;;;;;;;;;;;;;


トップ   新規 一覧 検索 最終更新   ヘルプ   最終更新のRSS